Effect of spices (garlic and ginger extract) and salt concentration on the microbial load associated with process ‘Iru’ (Pakia biglobosa) were investigated. The raw locust bean (RLB) had the highest total viable counts of 1.8 x 106 Cfu/g. Fermented locust bean (FLB) had 3.4 x 105 cfulg while FLBGIN (Fermented locust bean with giger) had         2.8 x 104 cfu/g. Femented locust bean with garlie (FLBGAR) had 3.8 x 104 cfu/g while FLBS (fermented locust bean with salt concentration) had 2.0 x 104 FLBS had the lowest bacterial load. FLB had the highest total colifiran count 6.4 x 104 cfu/g while FLBS had the lowest 1.3 x 103 cful/g. the RLB had coliform count of 4.1 x 104 cfu/g. FLBGN and FLBGAR had total coliform count 3.6 x 103 cfu/g, 7.2 x 103 cfu/g respectively. Six bacteria were associated with locust bean. They are Bacillus sp, Pseudomones sp, proteins sp, Fcauobacfesium sp, Enterobacter sp and Aeromohas sp. Fermented locust bean with salt had the least and lowest bacterial load. Salt is the best preservative on process ‘iru’ (Parkia biglobosa).    

TABLE OF CONTENTCHAPTER ONE1.0            Introduction                                                                                                                                11.1       Aims and objectives of study                                                       2

CHAPTER TWO2.0            Literature review                                                                                                          32.1       Origin and geographic distribution                                                     32.2       Legumes                                                                                              3 -52.3          Preparation of legumes                                                                                                 5 – 82.4       Ginger                                                                                                         8 – 132.5       Adverse effects and toxicology                                                                                 132.6       Spiritual and religious perception                                                                             14 – 19

CHAPTER THREE3.0            Materials and methods                                                                                  203.1            Low chart for the processing of Iru (Locust bean)                                                20 – 223.2          Preparation of bacteria locust beans for fermentation                           233.3            Isolation procedure                                                                                                       23 – 24  3.4            Method Isolation                                                                                                         25

CHAPTER FOUR4.0            RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                     26            4.1       Result                                                                                                                                  26

CHAPTER FIVE                                                      5.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                    285.1       Conclusion                                                                                              285.2       Recommendations                                                                                  28References                                                                                                                  29 – 30 s


The high cost of animal protein has directed interest towards several leguminous seed proteins as potential sources of vegetable protein for human food and livestock feed. Among the plant species, gain legumes are considered as the major source of direct proteins.They are consumed worldwide, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural, or religious factors (Esenwah and Lkenebomeh, 2008).Locust bean is proteins Protein-Energy-Malnutrition (PEM) is a serious problem facing most developing nations as a result of inadequate intake of a good quality protein source such as meat, fish, and poultry product, which are out of reach to many populaces due to poor economy increase in population pressure and others natural calamities such as drought and flood ladeji et al., 1995; Nordeide et al, 1996). In these nations, about 60% of the population suffers from PEM, which results in a high rate of mortality, permanent brain damage, and a decrease in the learning capability of children (Abdullahi, 2000).Apart from protein, legumes provide a high proportion of complex carbohydrates, starch, edible oil, and fibre (Pirman et al, 2001,  Chau et al; 1998).African locust bean seeds are rich in protein and usually fermented to a tasty food condiment called dawadawa which is used as a flavor intensifier for soups and stews and also adds protein to a protein–poor diet.Among the leguminous plants used by man particularly in some African countries, is the African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa). The seeds are well known for their uses in the production of local condiments commonly known as Dadadawa (Hausa) or Iru (Yoruba). Furthermore, Parkia biglolose is such plant legumes with an outstanding protein quality, and its protein and amino acid composition has been reported (Nordeide et al., 1996; Ega et al., Glew et al., 1997; Cook et al., 2000; Lockett et al., 2000). However, much research work has been done on the effect preservative of soy-Iru with either salt or ginger but not on processed Iru parkia biglobosa with different species and salt. In locust bean spoilage is the deterioration of food by bacteria then, locust been can be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria produce food intioxication and infection (Adams and Moss. 1999).Therefore, there are need to reduce the load and hamful effects of these pathogenic bacteria in locust bean in other to fit for consumption and to enhance its safety in consumer. This could be done by using different species extract (ginger, garlic, and salt-concentration in locust beans)1.1            AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY    To determine the microbiological effect of ginger on processed Iru (Parkia biolobosa).    To determine the microbiological effect of garlic on processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa).    To determine the microbiological effect of salt concentration on processed Iru.    To evaluate the best preservative in processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa).    To evaluate the no of bacterial load in processed.    To evaluate the bacterial load in processed Iru with salt, ginger and garlic.




Researchwap.com is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.com guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.