CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study.  

Hibiscus sabdariffa belongs to the super order Malvaceae and it is believed to originate from East Africa (IIondu and IIoh, 2007). H. sabdariffa plants are cultivated and consumed as vegetable and tea, whereas other hibiscus varieties are planted for the fibers they produce. It is called different names like Roselle and Sorrel in English and it is locally called zobo and Isapa in Nigeria (Adebayo and Samuel, 2000). Many parts of Roselle including seeds,eaves, fruits and roots are used in various foods. Among them, the fleshy red calyces are the most popular (Yadeng et al., 2005). Roselle is used inany folk medicines. In Nigeria, the dry red calyces are processed into a refreshing non- alcoholic beverage known as zobo.

Roselle are rich in anthocyanins and was found to contain higher amounts of ascorbic acid compared to oranges and mangoes (Mazza et al., 1993). The anthocyanins from the calyces of this tropical plant are ideal for producing brilliant red colouring in gelatin, jams, jellies and fruit beverages (Mazza et al., 1993). DP3- sambubioside is the major pigment responsible for the reddish- violet colour. Pharmacognosists in Senegal trend Roselle extracts for lowering blood pressure (Morton and J., 1987). Morton, 1987 reported that both the aqueous extract and the colouring matter of the calyces are lethal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

In the West Indies  and tropical America, Roselle is prized primarily for the cooling, lemonade like beverage made from the calyces. This is still one of the most popular summer drinks of Mexico, as Rose observed in 1899. In Egypt, Roselle 'Ade' is consumed cold in summer, hot in winter. In Jamaica, a traditional Christmas drink is prepared by putting Roselle into an earthenware jug with a little grated ginger and sugar as desired, pouring boiling water over it and letting it stand over night. The liquid is drained off and serves with ice and often with a dash of rum (Morton and J., 1987). A similar spices drink has long been made by natives of West Tropical Africa (Chang- Chen Chen et al., 1996). In Nigeria, the Roselle calyces, especially the red variety have long been uses for making local non- alcoholic drink called zobo.

Dougheri et al.,( 2007) employed some chemical preservatives to improve the shelf life of zobo drink. They reported that only samples treated with benzoic acid remained organ old primally attractive after 14days of storage. However, the problem with the Uae of chemical preservatives in food is that they tend to have adverse effects on the health of consumers (Adesokan et al., 2010). Therefore naturally occurring plant extracts with proven antimicrobial properties will be preferred in food preservation (Kolapo et al., 2007). The use of natural preservatives has become more popular as compared to synthetic antimicrobiala and antioxidants (Aliu et al., 2007).

Spices such as ginger and garlic are two plants traditionally used as spices in food preparation but have been demonstrated to have both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities (Kolapo et al., 2007).

1.2 Problem statement

Despite the fact that the popularity of beverage from hibiscus sabdariffa is increasing, one of it's greatest limitation for large scale production is that it has a very short shelf life of 24hrs if not refrigerated (Omemu et al., 2006). Therefore, there is urgent need to explore various preservation methods that could ve employed to extend the shelf life of this product.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The manor objective of the study is the quality assessment of nonalcoholic beverage developed from Hibiscus sabdariffa and various spices. Which is to be achieved through the following specific objectives;

(i) determination of physiochemical and antioxidant properties of the of the beverage and

(ii) microbiological assessment of the beverage.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what are non alcoholic beverage?

(2) what is the nutritional importance of hibiscus sabdariffa?

(3) why the need to add spices to non alcoholic beverage from hibiscus sabdariffa?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research gives a clear insight into the quality assessment of non alcoholic beverage developed from hibiscus sabdariffa and carious spices. The findings and recommendations of thus research will make consumers aware of the benefits of adding spices to beverage from hibiscus sabdariffa.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research focuses on the quality assessment of non alcoholic beverage developed from hibiscus sabdariffa and various spices.


Adebayo - tayo BC, Samuel UA (2000). Microbial quality and proximate composition of dried Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces in Uyo. Eastern Nigeria. Malaya's. J. Microbiol. 5(1): 13-18.

Adesokan IA, Abiola IP, Ogundiya MO (2010). Influence of ginger on sensory properties and shelf life of Ogi, a Nigerian traditional fermented food. Africa. J. Biotechnology. 9(12). 1803-1808.

Aliu J.Gun IU, Mustapha A. (2007). Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, colour change and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Food Microbial. 24:7-14.

Chang-che Chen, ten-p, chou, yung-chyan HO, Wen-Lunglin, Chin-pin Wang, Eri- Shyh Kano, An-Chung Huang and Chaujong Wang 2004. Inhibitory effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract on low- density lipoprotein oxidation and anti-hyperlidemia in fructose- fed and cholesterol. Fedrats. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 84(15): 1989-1996.

Dougheri JH, Alabi G., Elmahmood AM (2007). Effect of some chemical preservation on the shelf-life of zobo drink. Afri. J. Microbiol. Res. 2: 037-041.

IIondu EM, IIoh AC (2007). Inhibition of three fungal isolate from sorrel drink (zobo) using hurdle technique. World J. Agric. Sci 3(3) 339-343.

Kolapo AL, Popoola TOS, Sanni MO, Afolabi RO (2007). Preservative of soybean daddawa condiment with dichloromethane extract of ginger. Res. J. Microbiol. 6: 13-18.

Omenu AM, Edema MO, Atayese AO, Obadina AO (2006). A survey of the microflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and resulting zobo juice. Afri. J. Biotechnol. 5(3):254-259.

Mazza, G. and Miniati, E. 1993 Antocyanin in fruit. Vegetables and Grain CRC Press. Boca Eaton FL.

Morton, J. 1987. In Morton, J.F. (ed.). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL. Pp. 281-286.

Yadeng Q, Chin KL, Malekian F, Berhane M, Gager J (2005). Biological characteristics nutritional and medicinal values of Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa. Circular- Urban Forestry Natural Resources and Environmental No. 604.




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