CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study  

Velvet tamarind tree is commonly called 'Awin' among the Yorubas, and icheku by igbos. The fruit pulp which is red with a sweet sour,astringent flavour similar to baobab, but sweeter is eaten raw when dry byan and animal (Matsuda, 2006). Velvet tamarind is an important multi purpose agro forestry crop (Nwaoguala et al., 2007). It is made up of two species (Dalium indium or Dalium cochichinense and D. guineense wild ). (Ubbaonu et al., 2005). D. guineense commonly known as African black velvet tamarind, is a large tree found in many parts of Africa, such as West Africa, Central Africa Republic and the Chad. The tree belongs to the family Fabaceae vassal pinion data. It is 30m high, with a densely leafy crown, but often shrubby. The leaves are finely hairy, broadly elliptic, blunt at the apex, leathery and are a sunken midrib. Its flowers appear whitish ans the branches are horizontally spread (Szolnok, 1995).

Fruits are usually circular and flattened, black in colour with stalk 6mm long, a little collar is seen near the apex and a bristle shell encloses one or two seeds embedded in a dry brownish edible pulp. Wild fruits are dietary supplements for rural dwellers in Nigeria during the dry season when fruits are scarce (George Mateljan Foundation 2011). The fruits are used as source of vitamin C, as flavor in snacks and non alcoholic beverages (Effiong et al., 2009; Adame, 2002). Fruits pulps supplies high amount of micro nutrients like sodium, magnesium and potassium. Bark and leaves are used against several diseases such as maria (Effiong and Udo, 2010). Velvet tamarind is a tall, tropical fruit bearing tree which belongs to the leguminosae family that has small and grape sized edible fruits with brown hard inedible shells. It grows in Savannah regions of West Africa and widely spread in Nigeria (Ogungbenle and Ebadan, 2014). The fruit is used as a candy lime snack food in Thailand, often dried, sugar coated and spiced with chillies.

Awin, as this fruit is called by the Yoruba people of Nigeria, has an orange coloured pulp which has a sweet and sour taste and a dry powdery texture. The fruit is also called 'Tsamiyarkum' by the Hausa's (Gbile,1980; Burkill,1985). The fruit is rich in minerals (magnesium, sodium, iron potassium and beta carotene (vitamin A) copper, sugars and tartaric acid, citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid and niacin. As anticipated, this fruit also has high levels of antioxidants. The pulp is believed to improve appetite and is used as a gargle for sore throats, dressing of wounds and is said to aid the restoration of sensation in cases of paralysis. The unique sweet sour flavor of the pulpakes it popular in domestic cooking and flavorings. The thirst quenching, refreshing fruit pulp can also be soaked in water and drank as a beverage and also provides chewing sticks, jams and jellies (FAO, 2004.)

1.2 Problem Statement

In Nigeria, velvet tamarind pulp is normally consumed fresh, which could be the reason why at its peak period surplus fruit suffers post harvest losses due to poor handling and weevil infection (CTA, 2012). Hence, there is need to explore an affordable and easily adoptable food processing method that can be used to convert the surplus fruits into shelf stable products like jam which are easy, cheap and economically reliable alternative that will reduce post harvest losses.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objectives of the Study is to assess the quality and sensory evaluation of jam produced from tamarind and pineapple. Which is to be achieved through the following specific objectives:

(i) Determination of the proximate, minerals and phytochemical composition of the jam and,

(ii) Microbiological assessment of the jam.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what is velvet tamarind?

(2) where can it be found ?

(3) what is the nutritional importance of it?

(4) Does it possess medicinal properties?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the potential of tamarind pulp in jam production with a view to improving its utilization efficiency thereby adding value to the tree, encouraging its cultivation and in the long run reduce vitamin C deficiency in individuals.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research focuses on the quantity assessment and sensory evaluation of jam from velvet tamarind and pineapple in Nigeria.


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Burkill HM (1985). A cioabareri (chrysobalanceae). In: the usefulness of plants of West Africa. Published by Royal botanic gardens. P208.

CTA (2012), Going to waste, missed opportunity in the battle to improve food security. CTA Policy Brief, 7.

Effiong GS, Ibia TO, Udofia US (2009). Nutritive and energy value of some wild fruit species in South-Eastern Nigeria. E.J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 8: 917-923.

Effiong GS, Udo IF (2010). Nutritive values of four indigenous wild fruits in South eastern Nigeria Electrons J. Environ. Agric Food Chem. 9: 1168-1176.

FAO (2004). Calcium requirements. Food and Agriculture Organization. Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Gbile ZO (1980). Velvet tamarind (Dalium guineense wild) In: Vernacular names of Nigerian plants. Published by Forestry Research Institute Ibadan. P.13.

George Mateljan Foundation (2011). Vitamin and Mineral. Elsevier Science. Pub. Co. Pp 49-188.

Matsuda R (2006). Feeding ecology of the Mona mo key (Cercopithecus Mona ) in a seasonally dry flooded forest inghe Dhomey gap. Dept.of Anthropology, Graduate center, city University of Network, Network, NY, 10016 (USA IES Conference 2006 ( A velvet Tamarind is an important multipurpose ).

Nwaoguala CNC, Osagbovo AU, Orhue ER (2007). Seed treatment for development of Seedlings of black velvet tamarind (Dalium guineense). Africa. J. Gen. Agric. 3: 49-51.

Ogungbenle HN, Ebadan P (2014). Nutritional qualities and amino acid profile of velvet tamarind pulp. Be. Boomed Bull 2:6-60.

Szolnok TW (1985). Food and fruit trees of Gambia Hamburg. Federal Republic of Germany.

Ubbaonu CN, Onuegbu NC, Banigo EOI, Uzoma A (2005). PHYSICO chemical changes in velvet tamarind during fruit development and ripening Big. Food. J.23:133-137.





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