Water is an essential natural resource required by all living organisms. However among these living organisms, human beings tend to use water most for the purposes of drinking, personal, domestic, industrial and recreational uses (Igbeneghu and Lamikanra 2014). Nigeria like other developing nations is faced with problems of potable water supply for its estimated 160 million citizens (Adesiji 2013). As a result of this and other factors, packaged drinking water has been used as alternative drinking water source (Oyedeji et al. 2010). Packaged drinking water is defined as water packaged in cans, plastic sachets, and pouches for the main purpose of consumption (Warburton 1993). It is most common in low socio-economic countries as means of salvaging scarce potable, safe water and to generate income, yet, various studies have shown that some packaged drinking water may not be safe for drinking due to the presence of pathogens (Ahmed et al. 2013; Obiri-Danso et al. 2003).

According to Oyedeji et al. (2010), water-borne diseases are one of the major public health-related problems in developing countries like Nigeria. The ever increasing demand, sale and indiscriminate consumption of packaged drinking water in Nigeria, therefore, poses significant public health risks to the citizens especially individuals with compromised immune systems (Mgbakor et al. 2011). Most producers of packaged drinking water in Nigeria obtain their raw water mostly from sources such as local, municipal piped water, or well water and therefore, do not follow specified standards due to lack of the appropriate drinking water technology (Oluyege et al. 2014).

Osun State Water Corporation  (OSWC),  and  the  Rural Water  Environmental  Sanitation Agency  (RUWESA)  are  inadequate for  the  growing  population  and  at  best epileptic in most Osogbo communities  (OSWC,  2008).  As a consequence of pipe-borne  water shortage,  the  Osun State residents depend  on  water  from boreholes,  hand-dug  wells  and  water vended  in  sachets.  From a  public health perspective,  there is a  need to ascertain the quality of the water accessible to the residents to  avoid  or  reduce  incidence of  contaminated  water-related  health hazards.  Based on this,  the study was undertaken to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological properties of packaged water used by the student's residents of  Osun  State.  The study is relevant in assuring whether the quality of the packaged water meets the regulatory standards because portable water is essential to life.

1.2 Problem Statement.

Despite various studies by researchers, there is no information on prevailing pathogens. This study was, therefore, carried out to compile nationally and internationally published articles in order to summarize and compare occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria and potential water borne bacterial pathogens in packaged drinking water sold in Osun state.

So also analyze the physiochemical properties of the packaged water to check if they conform with the standard to ensure their safety.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun State.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what is the various packaged water sold in Osun state?

(2) Is there any physical proof to show they are portable water?

(3) why the need to perform physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study gives a clear insight into the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state. The findings and recommendations of these research will enlighten consumers on how safe the water samples are and may also help the concerned regulatory bodies on the safety of the water sold in Osun state.

1.6 Scope of the study

This research focuses on the physiochemical and microbial analysis of packaged water sold in Osun state.

1.7 Limitations of the study

This study was conducted on selected samples of water sold in Osun State.


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Ahmed W, Yusuf R, Hasan I, Ashraf W, Goonetilleke A, Toze S, Gardner T. Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Braz J Microbiol. 2013;44(1):97–103. DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822013005000026. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Igbeneghu OA, Lamikanra A. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):859. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-859. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

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Oluyege J, Olowomofe T, Abiodun O. Microbial contamination of packaged drinking water in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, south western Nigeria. Am J Res Com. 2014;2(10):231–246.

Oyedeji O, Olutiola P, Moninuola M. Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife city in South-Western Nigeria. Afr J Micro Res. 2010;4(1):096–102.

Venkatesan KD, Balaji M, Victor K. Microbiological analysis of packaged drinking water sold in Chennai. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3(4):472–476. DOI: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.150220143. [Cross Ref]

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