NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND CYANOGENIC CONTENT OF GARI SAMPLES IN OSUN STATE
Six samples of Cassava product (garri) were collected from different processing centres in Osun state and subjected to proximate and cyanogenic analysis to determine their nutritional composition and safety for human consumption. At the end of the analysis, the results is vary because of climate, weather, and nutrient of the soil. All the samples met the standard recommended by IITA 2005 and FSAN 2004. And thus safe for human consumption.
LIST OF TABLES Consumption pattern by zone and cassava product 16 Daily consumption of cassava per capital 18 Frequency of cassava consumption 19 Daily processing capacity by scale of operation and product 21 Cassava demand estimates by president’s initiative 26 A conservative estimates of demand 27 Middle of the road, estimate of potential demand for cassava 27 The nutritional supplement provides by gari 36 Proximate analysis (%) and cyanogene content of gari sample 56
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i Dedication ii Certification iii Acknowledgment iv Abstract v Table of content
Chapter One 1.0Introduction 1
2.0 Chapter two
Literature review 3
2.1 Cassava 3 2.11 Composition of cassava 4 2.12 Economic impact 4 2.13 Uses 6 2.14 Biofuel 7 2.15 Animal feed 8 2.16 Ethnomedicine 8 2.17 Various ways ofn using starch industries 8 2.18 Food use processing and toxicity 9 2.19 Harvesting 10 2.20 Post harvest handling and storage 11 2.21 Pest 12 2.22 Processing and utilization 13 2.23 Future targets 21 2.24 New initiative 24 2.25 The way forward 27 2.26 Gari 31 2.26.1 Types of gari 31 2.26.2 Variation 32 2.26.3 Nutritional composition of gari 33 2.3 Cyanogenic glucosides 34 2.31 The compounds 34 2.32 Sources 35 2.33 Human health effects 35 2.34 Neurological effect 36 2.35 Estimates of dietary exposure 37 2.36 Factor influencing risk 37 2.37 Safety assessments 38 2.38 Safety and regulation limits 39
Chapter three 3.1 Materials 40 3.2 Method 40 3.21 Proximate analysis and cyanogenic content of gari samples 40 3.21.1 Determination of moisture 40 3.21.2 Determination of ash 41 3.31.3 Determination of crude fibre 42 3.21.4 Determination of fat 43 3.21.5 Determination of protein 43 3.21.6 Determination of cyanogenic glucosides 44
Chapter four 4.1 proximate analysis (%) and cyanogenic content of gari sample 45 4.2 Discussion 46
Chapter five 5.1 Conclusion 47 5.2 Recommendation 47 Reference 48
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION
Cassava is an important source of food in Africa as an important source of raw materials for the industries. More than any other crop in Africa, cassava has assumed great importance in Africa Agriculture and food supply. The reasons for this are because of the following features which cassava posses.
Cassava is highly adaptable to wild Agro-ecological conditions and gives relatively high yield on poor soil. Cassava has high drought tolerance and can survive the long dry season characteristics of many parts of Africa. Cassava has no fixed planting and harvesting time and its production require relatively low skill. Cassava is relatively tolerant to common pest, which devastate other crops easily.
In spite of the above advantages, cassava has some limitations which affects is utilization and militates against its marketing beyond its region of propagation. These limiting factors include the following;
After harvesting, cassava deteriorates very fast than other roots and tuber i.e. it has poor post harvest keeping qualities. Cassava is bulky to transport and storage. Cassava, like some other crops e.g. sorghum contains some potentially toxic component, referred to as cyanogenic glucoside or linamarine Cassava has low protein content.
Because of the above limitations, there are some myths that are being propagated by enemies of cassava. Some of these myths are
That cassava is an inferior food crops. This is lie being propagated about cassava. The propagation of this myth support their carat with the fact that cassava consume it for its high energy content therefore because cassava is an important source of carbohydrate and energy it is wrong to claim that it is an inferior food. Another myth is that it is a woman’s crop. The reason for this myth is the believed that only women are involve in the cultivation and processing of cassava. It is known today however that men and women, children and adult are involved in cultivation and processing of cassava. That cassava is a dangerous and toxic crop. This is a lie too because cassava contains no toxin. Cassava only contains some cyanogenic glucosides e.g. linamarine which when hydrolyzed yield the toxic hydrogen cyanide.
It should be noted that there are other crops apart from cassava e.g. sorghum which contain cyanogenic glucoside and these other crops are not been labeled as dangerous crop. within the past 30years, however and mostly through the effort of IITA, cassava cultivars with low cyanogenic glucoside content have now been popularized. Consequently, this project is designed to achieve the following aim and objectives.
To collect samples of gari from Gari processing centres in Osun State. To evaluate the nutritional and cyanogenic contents of Gari samples collected. To compare the results of evaluation with the standard.