THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ILORIN WEST LGA, KWARA STATE PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is considered as the most important instrument for change and natural development. However, of all the problems facing Nigeria education system today, none is more agonizing and persistent as the poor academic performance of the students especially of secondary school at the external examination conducted by West African examination council (WAEC) and national examination council (NECO).
Borisade (2012) described the failure observed in public examination as: a symptom of pervasive national failure syndrome. It would seem as it failure has bee stamped on every facet of our national Endeavour. One should then not be surprise if student performed poorly because they have become dischanted with academics and disillusion with the acquisition of unprofitable academic certificates.
The perennial failure at public examination in light of above assertion could be part of societal failure. A society that shuns academics and worship mediocrity and materialism will undoubtedly reduce the premium attached to academic certificates. A cursory look at our environment reveals that the Nigerian society has changed considerably within the past two decades. It is also evident that the youths are changing just as the society is changing just as the society is changing. The school system is both a product and reflection of the entire society.
Students' learning can be evaluated in many different ways, but in a developing country like Nigeria where about 40 percent of the adult populations are illiterates, parents use the performance of the children in public examinations to pass judgment on the schools and teachers. To them the logic is a simple one. The schools are supposed to be stated by good teachers and supplied adequate facilities and instructional materials. It is the responsibility of Government to ensure through such provisions and regular inspection or supervision that effective teaching and learning go on in the school. The task of parent is to send their children to school and pay whatever fees and levies charged by the institutions. Through many parents acknowledge shortage of funds, teacher and infrastructures in the schools and their own inability to buy all required books and other learning materials for their wards, yet they strongly believe that if the students perform badly in their examinations, the teacher and administrators have not done their job well and should take most of the blame.
Borisade (2012) maintained that high level of students' academic performance may not be guaranteed where physical facilities such as classrooms, laboratories and technical workshops are structurally defective, not properly ventilated and not spacious enough for use. He further emphasized that structural effectiveness, proper ventilation and well located space may lead to successful teaching and learning process.
Researchers have shown that the secondary school students' academic performance in Nigeria is poor. Borisade (2012), and Akubuiro and Joshua (2004) reported that there was persistent mass failure of student in the senior school certificate Examination (SSCE) conducted by west African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). The poor academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria may not be unconnected with seemingly poor resources allocation in the schools.
In recent times, performance of candidates in public Examination has declined. For example, the performance of candidates in may/June West African senior school certificate Examination (WASSCE) between 2006 and 2010, according to Dike (2011), has declined with mass failure recorded in English language and Mathematic. See table below.
Analysis of students’ performance in SSCE English and Mathematics between 2006 and 2010.
Subject Year Total entry Total Sat Total credit & above Total pass 7-8 Fail
Subject YearTotal entryTotal Sat Total credit & above Total pass 7-8Fail
1,060,408 (97.65 389,510(36.55)
408,537 (38.20) 340, 462 (32.73)
340, 462 (32.62)
273,155 (25.36) 3i9,795(30.71)
Source Borisade 2012
Federal and state policy maker proposing new education program often base their argument on the need to provide more resources to school to improve opportunities for students. Many Americans seems to share this view.
Polling data show that many people believe that government allocates insufficient resources to school. A poll conducted annually from 2009 through 2012 found that American adults list insufficient funding and resources as top problem facing public school in their community.
The availability of educational resources is very important because of its role in the achievement of education objectives and goals. The extent to which an organization like educational institution attains her objectives is directly proportional to the educational resources available and their utilization. Educational resources can be categorized into human, material, physical and financial resources.
Human resources in education are the students, teaching staff, non teaching staff such as bursar, Liberian, laboratory attendants, clerks’ messengers, mail runner, gatekeepers, gardener and cook as well as educational planners and administrators.
Material resources include textbooks, charts, maps, audio-visual, and electronic instructional. Materials such as radio, tape recorder, television and video tape recorder. other category of material resources consist of paper supplies and writing materials such as biro, eraser, exercise books, crayon, chalk, drawing books, notebooks, pencil, ruler, slate, workbooks and so on.
Physical resources include classrooms, lecture theaters, auditoriums typing pools, administrative block, libraries, laboratories, workshops, gymnasia and assembly halls, special rooms like sickbay, staff room quarters, students' hostel, kitchen, cafeteria, lavatory and toilet.
Financial resources are the monetary inputs available for and expended on the education system, these include money allocated to education by the government grants, PTA levy, and donations from philanthropists and internally generated funds.
Academic performance of secondary school students also depends largely on adequate provision of all the resources. The resources which should normally go along with the program, are inadequate, even the quantity that is made available is not efficiently allocated. This study is specially set out to ascertain the extent to which human, physical, material and financial resources are being allocated. To find a solution to these problems that has become the subject of considerable national concern. It is expedient that we should examine the factors responsible for the problem either empirically or in some logical manner.
1.2 Statement of the problem
It has been observed the most public secondary school in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara state, usually record mass failure in the senior secondary school certificate Examination. Performance in public examination seems to be one of the major parameters by which society judges the products of its educational system. In the light of this assertion, Nigeria has not fared well in her attempt years now, has characterized now only by poor academic performance of alarming proportions but also by a growing increase in society's disappointment and discontentment in the delivery and products of secondary education. The inadequate and lopsided distribution of resources combined with inefficient allocation of those resources to undermine the productivity of secondary education. This observed poor performance motivated the researchers to conduct an investigation on the observed problem and find out the relationship that exists between educational resources and students’ academic performance in the selected schools
However, the study specifically sought answers to the following questions -:
a) What are the impacts of educational resources on students' academic performance?
b) Does government provide educational resources all alone?
c) Do educational resources provided by the government evenly distributed?
d) Is there other sources by which public secondary school generate fund?
1.3 purpose of the study
The research is designed to determine the relationship between educational resources and students' academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, kwara state public secondary schools.
In specific terms, the purposes were to:
a) Determine various types of educational resources available in the state secondary schools.
b) Know the impact of human resources on the students’ academic performance
c) Determine the impact of material resources on students academic performance
d) Know the impact of material resources on student academic performance.
e) Examine the impact of material resources on students’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
1. Is there any relationship between physical resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary School?
2. Does provision of human resources predict the academic performance of students in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary School?
3. Does availability of financial resources predict the academic performance of students in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools?
4. Does provision of material resources predict the academic performance of students in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Based on the research questions stated, the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
HO: There is no significant relationship between physical resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools.
H1: There is no significant relationship between human resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between physical resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between financial resources and students academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary schools.
HO4: There is no significant relationship between material resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin Kwara State Secondary Schools.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study focused on educational resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools. The indicators used for Educational resources are: Human resources, material resources, physical resources and financial resources.
Although, there are 23 public secondary school in Ilorin west local government area Kwara State, the researcher limited the study to 15 selected schools from the 23 secondary schools in the LGA. Hence, the researcher is of the opinion that the result will be representative of the public schools
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be of significant importance o the government, the parents and private organizations on the need to provide educational resources of all instructions of learning for effective teaching and learning
In addition, the study would be of immense significance to the ministry of education and teaching service commission on the need to expose secondary Schools principals and teachers more to periodic workshops, seminars and sandwich program to update their knowledge for efficiency and effectiveness in their jobs
1.8 Operational Definition of Term
For the purpose of the study, the following variables were operationally defined.
Resources: Resources in education is the sum total of everything that goes into the education system. A resource in this study, therefore, is taken to mean input into secondary schools education program. Such resources examined fall into four categories, which constitutes the four sub variable VIZ: Human, Material Physical, and financial resources.
Human resources -: Human resources refers to staff both teaching and non-teaching staff. In this study, teaching personnel represent the human resources of the school system and excludes the non teaching staff.
Material resources -: This refers to the resources such as : books, biro, pencils, microscope and so on.
Physical resources -: This refers to the resources such as basic infrastructures such as building, fixture fitting, classrooms lecture rooms, space rooms laboratories, libraries, chairs desks and tables used by staffs and students.
Financial resources -: This refers to the monetary aspect of secondary school education.
Academic performance -: this is the display of knowledge and skills attained as shown by the marks or grades achieved by the students of a school in an examination during and after course content..