1.1    Background of the Study

         Education is considered as the most important instrument for change and natural development. However, of all the problems facing Nigeria education system today, none is more agonizing and persistent as the poor academic performance of the students especially of secondary school at the external examination conducted by West African examination council (WAEC) and national examination council (NECO). 

          Borisade (2012) described the failure observed in public examination as: a symptom of pervasive national failure syndrome. It would seem as it failure has bee stamped on every facet of our national Endeavour. One should then not be surprise if student performed poorly because they have become dischanted with academics and disillusion with the acquisition of   unprofitable academic certificates. 

      The perennial failure at public examination in light of above assertion could be part of societal failure. A society that shuns academics and worship mediocrity and materialism will undoubtedly reduce the premium attached to academic certificates. A cursory look at our environment reveals that the Nigerian society has changed considerably within the past two decades. It is also evident that the youths are changing just as the society is changing just as the society is changing. The school system is both a product and reflection of the entire society.

  Students' learning can be evaluated in many different ways, but in a developing country like Nigeria where about 40 percent of the adult populations are illiterates, parents use the performance of the children in public examinations to pass judgment on the schools and teachers. To them the logic is a simple one. The schools are supposed to be stated by good teachers and supplied adequate facilities and instructional materials. It is the responsibility of Government to ensure through such provisions and regular inspection or supervision that effective teaching and learning go on in the school. The task of parent is to send their children to school and pay whatever fees and levies charged by the institutions. Through  many parents acknowledge shortage of funds, teacher and infrastructures in the schools and their own inability to buy all required books and other learning materials for their wards, yet they strongly believe that if the students perform badly in their examinations, the teacher and administrators have not done their job well and should take most of the blame. 

       Borisade (2012) maintained that high level of students' academic performance may not be guaranteed where physical facilities such as classrooms, laboratories and technical workshops are structurally defective, not properly ventilated and not spacious enough for use. He further emphasized that structural effectiveness, proper ventilation and well located space may lead to successful teaching and learning process.

    Researchers have shown that the secondary school students' academic performance in Nigeria is poor. Borisade (2012), and Akubuiro and Joshua (2004) reported that there was persistent mass failure of student in the senior school certificate Examination (SSCE) conducted by west African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). The poor academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria may not be unconnected with seemingly poor resources allocation in the schools.

              In recent times, performance of candidates in public Examination has declined. For example, the performance of candidates in may/June West African senior school certificate Examination (WASSCE) between 2006 and 2010, according to Dike (2011), has declined with mass failure recorded in English language and Mathematic. See table below.

Analysis of students’ performance in SSCE English and Mathematics between 2006 and 2010.

Subject Year Total entry Total Sat Total credit & above Total pass 7-8 Fail 













915,443 (98.33)

934,826 (98.91)

838,75 (98.65)

1,070,142 272,806(26.07)




278,477 322,322(24.68)




376,650 446564(41.13)





Subject YearTotal entryTotal Sat Total credit & above Total pass 7-8Fail













914,790 (98.58)

931,767 (98.58)

838,244 (98.59)

1,060,408 (97.65 389,510(36.55)

314,964 (34.91)

347,483 (36.91)


408,537 (38.20) 340, 462 (32.73)

340, 462 (32.62)


250,626 (28.22)

273,155 (25.36) 3i9,795(30.71)





Source Borisade 2012

Federal and state policy maker proposing new education program often base their argument on the need to provide more resources to school to improve opportunities for students. Many Americans seems to share this view.

Polling data show that many people believe that government allocates insufficient resources to school. A poll conducted annually from 2009 through 2012 found that American adults list insufficient funding and resources as top problem facing public school in their community. 

The availability of educational resources is very important because of its role in the achievement of education objectives and goals. The extent to which an organization like educational institution attains her objectives is directly proportional to the educational resources available and their utilization. Educational resources can be categorized into human, material, physical and financial resources.

     Human resources in education are the students, teaching staff, non teaching staff such as bursar, Liberian, laboratory attendants, clerks’ messengers, mail runner, gatekeepers, gardener and cook as well as educational planners and administrators.

                          Material resources include textbooks, charts, maps, audio-visual, and electronic instructional. Materials such as radio, tape recorder, television and video tape recorder. other category of material resources consist of paper supplies and writing materials such as biro, eraser, exercise books, crayon, chalk, drawing books, notebooks, pencil, ruler, slate, workbooks and so on. 

               Physical resources include classrooms, lecture theaters, auditoriums typing pools, administrative block, libraries, laboratories, workshops, gymnasia and assembly halls, special rooms like sickbay, staff room quarters, students' hostel, kitchen, cafeteria, lavatory and toilet. 

    Financial resources are the monetary inputs available for and expended on the education system, these include money allocated to education by the government grants, PTA levy, and donations from philanthropists and internally generated funds.

              Academic performance of secondary school students also depends largely on adequate provision of all the resources. The resources which should normally go along with the program, are inadequate, even the quantity that is made available is not efficiently allocated. This study is specially set out to ascertain the extent to which human, physical, material and financial resources are being allocated. To find a solution to these problems that has become the subject of considerable national concern. It is expedient that we should examine the factors responsible for the problem either empirically or in some logical manner.

1.2 Statement of the problem 

        It has been observed the most public secondary school in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara state, usually record mass failure in the senior secondary school certificate Examination. Performance in public examination seems to be one of the major parameters by which society judges the products of its educational system. In the light of this assertion, Nigeria has not fared well in her attempt years now, has characterized now only by poor academic performance of alarming proportions but also by a growing increase in society's disappointment and discontentment in the delivery and products of secondary education. The inadequate and lopsided distribution of resources combined with inefficient allocation of those resources to undermine the productivity of secondary education. This observed poor performance motivated the researchers to conduct an investigation on the observed problem and find out the relationship that exists between educational resources and students’ academic performance in the selected schools

              However, the study specifically sought answers to the following questions -:

a) What are the impacts of educational resources on students' academic performance? 

b) Does government provide educational resources all alone?

c) Do educational resources provided by the government evenly distributed? 

d) Is there other sources by which public secondary school generate fund?

1.3 purpose of the study

                The research is designed to determine the relationship between educational resources and students' academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, kwara state public secondary schools.

In specific terms, the purposes were to:

a) Determine various types of educational resources available in the state secondary schools.

b) Know the impact of human resources on the students’ academic performance

c) Determine the impact of material resources on students academic performance 

d) Know the impact of material resources on student academic performance.

e) Examine the impact of material resources on students’ academic performance.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions were raised to guide this study:

1. Is there any relationship between physical resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary School?

2. Does provision of human resources predict the academic performance of students in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary School?

3. Does availability of financial resources predict the academic performance of students in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools?

4. Does provision of material resources predict the academic performance of students in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Based on the research questions stated, the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

Main Hypotheses 

HO:   There is no significant relationship between physical resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools.

Operational Hypotheses

H1:    There is no significant relationship between human resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools.

HO2:   There is no significant relationship between physical resources and students’ academic          performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools.

HO3:    There is no significant relationship between financial resources and students academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary schools.

HO4:   There is no significant relationship between material resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin Kwara State Secondary Schools.

1.6 Scope of the study

The study focused on educational resources and students’ academic performance in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State Secondary Schools. The indicators used for Educational resources are: Human resources, material resources, physical resources and financial resources.

         Although, there are 23 public secondary school in Ilorin west local government area Kwara State, the researcher limited the study to 15 selected schools from the 23 secondary schools in the LGA. Hence, the researcher is of the opinion that the result will be representative of the public schools

1.7 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be of significant importance o the government, the parents and private organizations on the need to provide educational resources of all instructions of learning for effective teaching and learning

       In addition, the study would be of immense significance to the ministry of education and teaching service commission on the need to expose secondary Schools principals and teachers more to periodic workshops, seminars and sandwich program to update their knowledge for efficiency and effectiveness in their jobs

1.8 Operational Definition of Term

For the purpose of the study, the following variables were operationally defined.

Resources: Resources in education is the sum total of everything that goes into the education system. A resource in this study, therefore, is taken to mean input into secondary schools education program. Such resources examined fall into four categories, which constitutes the four sub variable VIZ: Human, Material Physical, and financial resources.

Human resources -: Human resources refers to staff both teaching and non-teaching staff. In this study, teaching personnel represent the human resources of the school system and excludes the non teaching staff.

Material resources -: This refers to the  resources such as : books, biro, pencils, microscope and so on. 

Physical resources -: This refers to the resources such as basic infrastructures such as building, fixture fitting, classrooms lecture rooms, space rooms laboratories, libraries, chairs desks and tables used by staffs and students.

Financial resources -: This refers to the monetary aspect of secondary school education.

Academic performance -: this is the display of knowledge and skills attained as shown by the marks or grades achieved by the students of a school in an examination during and after course content.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing