ASSESSMENT OF STUDY STRATEGIES AND ACHIEVEMENT GOALS OF SANDWICH STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, KWARA STATE)
This study examined the study strategies and achievement goals of sandwich students in University of Ilorin. The study found out the achievement goals held by sandwich students; study strategies adopted by sandwich students; the relationship between achievement goal and study strategies of sandwich students and determined if the study strategies of sandwich students in University of Ilorin depends on gender. This study employed descriptive survey research design. The population of the study consists of all students of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. A simple random sampling method was used to select 100 students across all the departments. A researcher’s designed questionnaire was used to elicit information on students’ study strategies and achievement goals. Descriptive statistics of percentage t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) were used for data analysis. Findings from the study revealed that the level of study strategy of sandwich students in University of Ilorin was low on majority; the level of achievement goal students in University of Ilorin was high on majority; there was significant relationship between study strategies and achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin; there was no is no significant difference in the achievement goal and study strategies of sandwich students in University of Ilorin based on gender. It was therefore recommended that the sandwich students should be orientated on the need to adopt study strategies that will assist them in their academic pursuit; students should be sensitized on the importance of achievement goals and the need to set realistic ones; the sandwich students should be orientated on the need to adopt study strategies that will commensurate with the kind of achievement goals ahead of them; and students, irrespective of gender, should be exposed to the kinds of instructional methods that will assist them in achieving their goals.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of Study Strategies 10
2.2 Self-Regulated Study/Learning Strategy 13
2.2.1 Theories of Self-Regulated Learning 14
2.3 Concept of Achievement Goals 24
2.4 Sources of Study Strategies among Sandwich Undergraduate
Students in Nigeria 26
2.5 Types of Achievement Goal 29
2.6 Importance of Study Strategies on the Individual 38
2.7 Achievement Goals among Sandwich Undergraduates 54
2.8 Summary of the Literature Reviewed 69
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 72
3.2 Population of the Study 73
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 73
3.4 Research Instrument 73
3.5 Validity of Instrument 74
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 74
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 75
3.8 Data Analysis Techniques 75
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND INTERRELATION
4.1 Descriptive Analysis of Respondents 76
4.2 Answering Research Questions 77
4.3 Summary of Findings 83
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Discussion of the Findings 84
5.2 Conclusion 85
5.3 Recommendations 87
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 88
1.1 Background to the Study
Sandwich study programme is a form of Adult education which United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2006) described as “the entire body of organized educational processes, whatever the content, level, method whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship”. Thus, persons regarded as adults by society to which they belong develop their technical or professional skills and bring about changes in their attitudes or behaviours in two-fold perspective of full personal development and participation in balanced and independent social, economic and cultural development.
The sandwich and part-time degree programmes represent one of the last available opportunities or chances for becoming university graduates in Nigeria. This is because there are so many people who are also capable of learning but inadequately or deliberately were not opportuned to do so because of certain reasons. Psychologically, it can be accepted that people who are mature and socially responsible and economically viable, technically qualified and mentally sound, may be considered as the beneficiaries of Sandwich Degree Programme or Course (Akinade, 2007).
Study Strategies plays an important role in the academic achievement of sandwich students. Good study strategies lead to good academic achievement goals and bad study lead to poor academic record as there is direct relationship between study habits and academic achievement (Verma, 2006; Verma and Kumar 2009, Satapathy and Singhal, 2000; Vyas 2002). Ramamurti (2003) rightly emphasized that despite possessing good intelligence and personality, the absence of good study strategy hampers academic achievement. Hence study strategy of students play important role in learning and fundamental to school success. Good study habit skills like note taking, having regular time to study, and organizing for a test, while removing the distraction that comes from television or phone call at home can lead to good academic performance (Tschumper, 2006). Effective study habits help students to achieve good results (Sadia, 2005). A proper study habit enables an individual to reap a good harvest in future.
Achievement goal, According to Okegbile (2007) achievement goal is a pedagogical terminology used while determining learner’s success in formal education, which is measured through factors exerting influence essentially. The National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013) has identified school achievement content according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects. In every school setting, students are perpetually in search of academic success, the success of academic achievement is their ultimate goal. Academic achievement in agricultural science can be expressed in the form of good scores and prizes as a result of hard work and exceptional performance in classroom test, assignment and examination (Robinson, 2001). Verma (2006) stressed that good study habits promotes academic performance of the students and high and low achievers as well as over and under achievers differ significantly with regard to quality and strength of their study habit. Learning is defined as a knowledge or skill acquired through study or by being taught.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students learn best under conducive atmosphere in school. One of the challenges that tertiary students face is to be able to adjust properly to their new environment and to cope with demands of the school for effective learning. The sandwich students, many of whom never dreamt to continue schooling have found their way into school because of the demand of the current educational reform in the country. The implication is that these students would have to persevere to cope with the demands of tertiary life. The students combine classroom teaching with a course of study. Taking into consideration their entry behavior (academic background) of such students, the schedule for their programme that is during their vacation holiday (face to face in education), meager salaries as untrained teachers and more so their status as bread winners to their families, it is pertinent to identity the factors that can cause achievement goal among the sandwich students. This is because failure to cope with achievement goal can lead to negative consequences including poor academic performance and drop out.
Therefore, this study main research investigated the “Assessment of study strategies and achievement goals of sandwich students in University of Ilorin”.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to assess the study strategies and achievement goals of sandwich students in University of Ilorin. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1. Determine the level of study strategies of sandwich students in University of Ilorin;
2. Examine the level of achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin;
3. Determine the relationship between study strategies and achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin; and
4. Find out if study strategies of sandwich students in University of Ilorin depends on gender.
5. Find out if achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin depends on gender.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were raised to guide the conduct of the study:
1. What is the level of study strategies of sandwich students in University of Ilorin?
2. What is the level of achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study:
1. There is no significant relationship between study strategies and achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin
2. There is no significant difference in the study strategies of sandwich students in University of Ilorin based on gender.
3. There is no significant difference in the achievement goal of sandwich students in University of Ilorin based on gender.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study will be of immense benefit to lecturers, school administrators, school counselors, students and other members of the public who may come across the result of the study. The research findings might be of great help to the government and other stakeholders by revealing the study strategies and achievement goals adopted by sandwich students. This may probably guide the school administrators in curbing the issue of poor performance amongst sandwich students as a result of poor study strategies. The findings of this study might also be useful to stakeholders in education in orientating sandwich students on the need to adopt effective study strategies and hold positive achievement goals since the result of this study will reveal the achievement goal held by sandwich students and the study strategies adopted towards achieving their goals.
This study will also show the relationship between achievement goals and study strategies. As such, it is hoped that the result of the study might be of great help to lecturers and school counselors and students by making them aware of how study strategies can predict achievement goals.
Finally, the findings of this study might be of great importance to those that will want to further research in areas relating to self-efficacy for learning and for employment between regular and sandwich students. The result might be a reliable source of information for intending. The study might provide empirical data for future researchers interested in the area of study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is centered on study strategies and achievement goals as it applies to sandwich students in University of Ilorin. The study will cover all sandwich students in University of Ilorin. Specifically, the study would involve only primary education sandwich students of University of Ilorin. Thus, 20 students will be randomly selected across the five academic levels of sandwich programme.
The variables to be considered in this study are study strategies and achievement goals. Study strategies will be treated as independent variable while achievement goal will be treated as dependent variable. Research instrument titled ‘study strategies and achievement goals questionnaire, to be developed by the researcher will used to obtain information on the various variables of the study. Data to be collected will be analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and t-test statistics.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The definitions of some of the major terms used in this study are operationally given below. This is to avoid ambiguities that might hinder the understanding of issues discussed in the study.
Achievement goals: refers to steps which an individual intend to take in order to get to a particular location in life
Sandwich Undergraduates: refer to student in tertiary institution which combine both working and studying together and large percentage where married.
Study strategies: refers to a in which these set of adults plan to make their reading convenient for their study.