CONSTRAINTS TO DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF ODEDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
1.1 Background to the Study
Sports are very popular all over the world because of the diverse purposes they serve. Bucher and Krotee (2002) opined that sports contribute to character building, discipline, economy, ideology, patriotism, education, mental development, human communication, physical fitness, and health.
Sports competitions, seminars, conferences, and meetings of various types provide the opportunity for individuals from different countries to exchange ideas and knowledge which in turn would be of immense benefit in educating the citizens of their countries.
Morakinyo (2002) observed that sports as a social phenomenon have grown from its humble beginning of being an entertainment and recreation pastime to become a visible and prominent business phenomenon that could no longer be ignored in the social, political, and economic environment of any nation. Many great nations and societies of the world have realized that participation in sports is the key to the healthy development of their citizens, and have used it to develop their young ones, attaining a success that science, religions, and politics have failed to achieve. Sporting activities have as well permeated the Nigerian society just as many other societies worldwide and also all aspects of social life such as politics and religion.
Awosika(2003) described sports as a symbol that has become a unifying factor in Nigeria and views itas an essential ingredient for nation-building, which cuts across all barriers ethnic, religious, or social, and has served as a medium for the development of youths.
Onifade (2003) viewed sports as an institutionalized competitive activity that involves vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by individuals. Sports in the context of this study are defined as games and plays of low and high organization within the secondary school setting. Such games and plays may or may not be competitive but may encourage greater students’ participation.
Collins (2005) defined sports development as a process whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems, and structures are set up to enable and encourage people in all or particular groups and areas to take part in the sport for recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (2009), segmented sports development into five distinct components: international sports, indigenous sports, stadium management, sports federations, and institutional sports.
International Sports arises because sports regularly cross international boundaries. Defining International sports as having an impact on more than one nation, Masteralexis, Barr, and Hums (2005) noted that it is extremely difficult to name sports that are unaffected by international influences.
Indigenous sports refer to traditional sports and games that have been practiced in Nigeria all over the years, even before colonialism and western education. The traditional sports and games then were basically for leisure and recreational activities, some of which reflect the cultural heritage and religious background of the people in Nigeria in general.
Akinemi (2008) gives some people examples of indigenous sports in Nigeria include Ayo (Seed game), Langa (Hopping game), Kokawa (Traditional wrestling), Aarin (an African billiards game), and amber (Traditional boxing). Indigenous sports encourage indigenous people to be more active and to play sport at all levels. It increases opportunities for indigenous people to learn the skills needed to organize, deliver, and manage community-based sport, and to ensure indigenous people talented
Stadiums facilities are designed to accommodate large groups of people who want to be entertained at a sport or an entertainment event. Stadium management as a component of sports development involves financing new stadiums or renovations of old ones, retaining the revenue generated by the stadium, and preparing fully integrated security programs.
Sports Federations are the organizations governing a specific sport within each country. Examples of sports federation in Nigeria include the Nigerian Football Federation(NFF), Athletic Federation of Nigeria (AFN), and Traditional Sports Federation of Nigeria(TSFN) among others. These organizations are responsible for approving and sanctioning competitions open to all athletes in the country. They set the national policies and eligibility standards for participation in their respective sports.
Sports federations are also responsible for the training, development, and selection of teams in their respective sports for various competitions in various institutions. Institutional sports here refer to school sports (Primary, Secondary & TertiaryInstitutions). Secondary school sport is the focus of this study, considering the role secondary school sports play in the early identification of sports talents and sports development.
Sports development in Nigeria has witnessed a lot of metamorphosis from the colonial, pre-independence to independence eras. Prior colonial incursion, dancing, acrobatic displays, and wrestling featured prominently as part of ceremonies in Nigerian societies(Ikulayo, 2004).
A constraint according to Hornby (2001) is a thing that limits or restricts. Quirk(2003) perceived constraint as something that limits one's freedom of doing what one wants to do. In the context of this study, constraints to sports development refer to those things such as lack of qualified sports personnel and adequate and suitable facilities and equipment among others that limit the development of sports in secondary schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State.
Abeku(2000)An important instrument for the attainment of the above objective would have been emphasizing the implementation of the regular school sport system and its physical education program at all levels of schooling (primary, secondary and tertiary). School sports constitute an important and inseparable stage in the pursuit of long term development objectives of sports, the athlete, the national, and sports organizations. (Vencateswarlu, 2000).
Musa (2009) noted that the secondary school age bracket constitutes the critical period for acquisition and mastery of sports skills. This is a unique and fascinating period in human development because students are usually in their formative period of development.
Secondary sport is a setting to encourage adolescents to begin and maintain a physically active lifestyle and also to acquire and develop high standard skills for major games and postsecondary school sports connote competitions particularly in football, athletics, and a few popular sports.
According to toMorakinyo and Aluko (2010), the administration of any organization is a function that requires personal/professional preparation on the part of the personnel. Sport is a technical area that requires adequate preparation for those that will manage it at any level.
Bucher, Koening, and Barnhard (2000) stated that no physical education and sport can effectively be carried out without adequate facilities and equipment. It is obvious that ideal facilities and equipment.
Nji (2010). The above statement rationalizes their inclusion in the present study. This also goes for the game prefects who as student-athletes lack the opportunity for proper participation in sports due to certain constraints to the development of sports. Various researchers and authors in Physical Education, such as Morankinyo and Aleko (2010), had outlined some factors such as the quality of sports personnel, government policy, funding of sport, sports facilities and equipment, and sports programs to be implicated in poor secondary schools for the development of sports. This study, therefore, attempts to concretely examine in the light of the foregoing the constraints that impede the development of sports in secondary schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Report of the Vision 2020 National Technical Working Group on SportsDevelopment (2009) recognized the weaknesses that exist in the conduct and organization of sports in Nigeria and Nigerian schools in particular and recommended among other statutory provisions such as to enhance sports development in schools and communities. Nigerian sports structure is such that the secondary school offers the main sporting opportunities for her citizens and it is the key to the early discovery of talented athletes.
Onifade (2009) explained that this opportunity for organized sports at the secondary school level is most logical, especially as many Nigerians appear to terminate their formal education at the secondary school level. It would, therefore, make reasonable sense to have strong secondary school sports structure in order to easily identify early talented athletes. This may have explained the reason why the Nigeria School Sports Federation(NSSF) was introduced in 1976 to bring about enhanced growth and development of sports in secondary schools in Nigeria, the achievement of this laudable goal by NSSF is still questionable in Nigeria, especially in secondary schools like the ones in Ogun State Education Zone. Available records at the Ogun State Sports office (Post Primary School ManagementBoard of Ogun State Zone, 2011) shows that there are hardly any organized sports competitions among secondary schools in the zone, also personal observation and experience has shown that there is a low level of participation by secondary school students in sporting competition and that Odeda Local Government Zone scarcely features prominently at the state and national sports competition. It is not yet ascertained the veracity of the claim about the already speculated factors as constituting constraints to sports development in secondary schools in Odeda Education Zone. This study, therefore, is to examine if the identified constraints also impact sports development in secondary schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the constraints to the development of sports in secondary schools (A case study of Odeda Local Government, Ogun State).
1.4 Research Questions
1. Would inadequate personnel be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Seconded Schools?
2. Would government policy be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools?
3. Would inadequate funding be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools?
4. Would the inadequate provision of sports facilities and equipment be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools?
5. Would student's attitude to sports programs be a constraint to the development of sports inOdeda Local Government Secondary Schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1. Inadequate personnel would not significantly be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools.
2. Government policy would not significantly be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools.
3. InadequateFundingwould not significantly be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools.
4. Inadequate provision of sports facilities and equipment will not significantly be a constraint to sports development in Odeda Local Government Secondary Schools?
5. Students' attitude to sports programs would not significantly be a constraint to the development of sports inOdeda Local Government Secondary Schools?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is on the theory of constraints on which this study will be. This theory emphasizes that every organization or system has one key constraint or the other which inhibits the system’s performance to meet its objectives and to achieve the objectives of the system.
The findings of this study will provide the basis for the development of a package for government, sports administrators, and athletes on how to eliminate or reduce the constraints.
The findings on the constraints associated with government policy will show the importance of appropriate policies which will enable other policymakers to not only develop policies but also ensure that it is implemented effectively.
The study will generate data on constraints associated with the funding of sports. This information will be useful to secondary school sports administrators as it will enable them to identify various sources of funds and the need for proper management of funds for sports development.
Data will also be generated on the constraints associated with the inadequacy of sports facilities and equipment. This will enable school sports administrators, and athletes to adopt better ways of making effective use of available facilities and equipment in the school, and also the need for improvisation of facilities and equipment not available.
Finally, the finding which will emanate from the constraints associated with students attitude to sports programs will enable game masters/mistresses to be better equipped with knowledge of the various sports programs in the secondary school and be able to harness them for the development of sports.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will be delimited to:
- some selected secondary schools in Odeda Local Government.
- to sports personnel,
- sports facilities and equipment,
- government policy and
- sports programs for the development of sports.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The main limitation of this study will be transportation problems due to poor road network system and long-distance from one school to another. Therefore, the study will be limited to areas that are easily accessible.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Constraint: a limitation or restriction
Sport: an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment or competition.
Secondary Schools: A secondary school is both an organization that delivers education and the building where this takes place.
Secondary School: An educational institution for young people between the ages of 11years and 18years..