THE EFFECT OF TEACHER-PUPIL RELATIONSHIP ON THE DEGREE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS
An extensive writing provides confirmation to muscular as well as supportive associations among teacher along with student is fundamental to the well growth of all students in school (Birch & Ladd, 2008; Hamre & Pianta, 2011; Pianta, 2011). Constructive student–teacher dealings bring as a supply used for students at danger of discipline breakdown, whereas conflict or extrication among students with adults might complex that danger (Ladd & Burgess, 2011). While the natural world of these associations‟ change as student’s developed, the desire used for connection among students as well as adults in the school situation relics burly starting playgroup to university level (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder, 2010). Moreover, still school position rising attention on answerability as well as uniform taxing, the community superiority of students-teachers associations contribute toward together instructive with communal–moving expansion. While student– teacher associations provide an exclusive admission location used for educators as well as others functioning to develop the common as well as education environment of school as well as classroom. These associations might be a straight centre of participation or might be view because solitary significant characteristic of winning achievement a lot of the other involvements describe in this scope. Dealings by teacher might be mostly all significant used for kids who demonstrate untimely educational or performance troubles. Inside one learn exploratory kids on educational danger, a collection of kids be selected while on danger used for recommendation used for particular education or conservation lying on the foundation of low nursery school collection score. Individuals who finally do gain busy referred among nursery school as well as next attain be compare with individuals who, in spite high danger, be promote or referred (Pianta, Steinberg, & Rollins, 2011). The kids who, in spite of predictions of defence or commendation, be ultimately promote or referred have distant additional optimistic relationships by their teacher their high-risk peers who be retain or referred. Likewise, unhelpful third-and fourth-graders that be competent toward shape cooperative relatives by teacher are probable than additional unhelpful student be healthy like with peer (Hughes, Cavell, &Wilson, 2011). Constructive relations by teacher might assist persons behaviourally helpless student study further adaptive performance, as evidence in one original learn between a collection of unhelpful African American along with Hispanic student which cooperative student–teacher relations be linked by income of refuse negative performance among instant with third score (Meehan, Hughes, and Cavell, 2013). Desire used for productive association by teacher does not reduce when grown-up kids. Preserve in teacher–student relationships might be typically outstanding at development point, such as development from basic to centre school teacher corresponds emotional and getting as well as create them available for personal announcement with student go onward creative relational processes feature hold up. These cooperative associations help retain student‟ wellbeing in educational along with communal pursuit, which within go round guide toward improved grade along with further constructive look closely relations. Whereas teacher be not the just base continue for centre discipline student, continue students accept starting their parents, peers, as well as teacher seem toward contain preservative, therefore virtually self-determining, effects. As a result, teacher continue in the middle of this period grouping might be alive mostly important used for student who contain small level of close relative maintain. Though student has fewer occasions by teacher throughout high school, here be physically powerful confirmation to relations by adult in these setting be in the middle of the majority central predictors of accomplishment. Information from the nationwide Longitudinal learning of young person physical condition point out that elevated discipline student coverage better connectedness toward teacher show inferior charge of emotional pain, desperate ideation, desperate performance, brutality, material desert, as well as early sexual movement (Resnick et al., 2010). Association by teacher is improved psychoanalyst of several outcomes than is students‟ intelligence of relations connected-ness. Because among youthful student, the profit of constructive relations through adults are not incomplete to societal along with moving outcome. while mutually parental as well as instructor hold up be significant inside predict students‟ attainment, a new learning indicate to student-perceived educator association be the reason the majority strongly related through increase within success as of learning (Gregory & Weinstein, 2010).
Educators and students have been known to hold strong beliefs about academic practices that are unsupported by research. The benefit of such academic practices may have been proven false or there may be insufficient search or conflicting research in the field to substantiate them. One example is belief that academic success is strongly and positively related to a relationship between students and Teachers (Lome, 2010; Grissom, 2010).
A proliferation of research from Schuman (2010) and other scholars suggest that if teachers take time to build relationship that they can motivate their students to learn. Furthermore researchers (Whitaker 2011) also suggest that teachers need to have a strong belief that building relationship is more important for the academic achievement of student. Teachers have to ensure that they are meeting both academically and emotionally.
A fundamental question for a student’s is (DOES MY TEACHER/STUDENT LIKES ME) given a rigorous, aligned curriculum, the answer to that simple question is our best prediction of student success on his /her academic achievement (Terry, 2010). A student has to feel worthwhile and appreciated. A teacher needs to recognize he or she has a positive effect on their student due to the relationship between them; a student wants to feel connected to people and feel as though he or she deserves to be loved and respected. According to (Stipek, 2012) many of the students who are not doing well academically, are the same ones who have a poor relationship with Teachers. Typically, the more they fall behind academically, often the more this relationship is weakened. If they are constantly reprimanded in class, the environment and the lecture-student relationship begins to hold a negative association. STIPEK also found that students who perceived a more nurturing relationship with their Teachers tends to have a better attitudes towards academic achievements and often did better than their peers who lacked the same support system. Skinner (2010) supported that a good Teacher-Pupil relationship positively influenced learning. The more connected a student feels this sense of connectedness may want to maintain it or please the Teacher by doing well in class.
According to Gtyler and Bolter, 2010, positive Teacher expectations were associated with high academic achievements or academic gains; whereas negative lecture expectation resulted in decrease in academic achievement. Teachers needs top capitalize on the impact that their positive attitude play inside the classroom, the genuine enthusiasm displayed by the instructor is always a major factor of motivation.
By the accountability of educator along with scholar toward make accessible education setting toward get better cognitive growth as well as academic accomplishment, it become evident persons non-intellectual factor too give good reason for educators‟ interest. Nightingale (2010) debate within university by improved group size through student starting dissimilar background inside several aspects, create an moving as well as cooperative feeling be constructive toward elevated superiority knowledge with too extremely demanding used for the instructor. Similarly, according to Biggs (2009), every human being educator, similar to institution since a complete, create a knowledge background also during official or unofficial relations by student. These surroundings are regarding how a educator as well as student „consider on belongings with to reasonably have optimistic as well as harmful effect going on students‟ knowledge.‟ He more acknowledged to „the value of the association put happy among teacher as well as student, or inside an organization, be referred toward its atmosphere, the method the student consider regarding it. Teacher, also within the classroom or outer the classroom, use an enormous contract of pressure on establish a superior advantage of teacher-student. During an emotional atmosphere „the majority major ingredient of charming teaching‟ designed for teacher to make happy be toward retain as well as build up a optimistic association by student as well as give exacting income toward supply used for students‟ supplies along with wellbeing (Jones, 2011). Students‟ deeper compliant be able to achieve during conversation as well as assistance through peers and teacher (Biggs, 2009). Be able to argue to student-teacher association be virtually significant during education as well as culture. Hypothetically they make accessible a impartial used for implication of teacher-student association in philosophy as well as knowledge. Empirically they shape conception of superior instruction with superior teacher during conditions of teacher association.
1.1 Background of the study
The teacher student association is very significant for children. Children use more or less 5 to 7 hours a day with a teacher for approximately 10 months. We inquire ourselves what is measured a good teacher. Every one of us has left through instruction, and if lucky had a preferred teacher. A constructive connection among the student and the teacher is complicated to set up, however be able to be establishing for both individuals at either end. The individuality for a helpful relationship can differ to set a knowledge experience friendly and attractive the students to study. A teacher and student who have the individuality of high-quality infrastructure, esteem in a classroom, and demonstrate attention in schooling from the tip of sight of the teacher and knowledge from a student will set up a optimistic connection in the classroom. I determination be focusing on the connection among the student and teacher, connecting a location in the main grades, which I have establish second grade to be very significant for the student to increase a helpful approach for their prospect learning.
Children have dissimilar strategies for knowledge and achieving their goals. A small number of students in a classroom will take hold of and study rapidly; however at the same time there will be those who have to be continually skilled using different techniques for the student to be capable to appreciate the lesson. Going on the other hand, there are those students who trick about and use school as activity. Instruction then becomes hard, particularly if there is no correct announcement. However, teachers, creating a constructive association with their students, will not unavoidably manage of all the upsetting students. The book, account table Classroom regulation written by Vernon F. Jones and Louise Jones discuss how to generate a culture atmosphere friendly for children in the basic schools. According to the Jones, “Student disruptions will happen regularly in course that are badly prepared and managed where students are not provided with suitable and attractive instructional tasks”. The input is, teachers require to incessantly observing the student in order for him or her to be awake of any difficulties the student is having. Thoughtful the child’s trouble, fright, or confusion will give the teacher an improved considerate the child’s education difficulties. just the once the teacher becomes attentive of the troubles, he or she will have more tolerance with the student, therefore creation the child sense safe or less puzzled when education is taking place in the classroom. The announcement among the student and the teacher serves as a relationship between the two, which provides an improved feeling for a classroom atmosphere. Of path a teacher is not leaving to appreciate every difficulty for every child in his or her classroom, however will obtain sufficient in sequence for those students who are stressed with exact tasks. An important body of research indicates that “educational attainment and student performance are subjective by the value of the teacher and student connection” (Jones 2011). The more the teacher connects or communicates with his or her students, the more probable they will be clever to assist students study at an elevated level and achieve rapidly. Consequently, those teachers who show esteem towards their students mechanically win help by having active learners in their classroom. The superior or unpleasant teacher will not have these helpful qualities due to his or her require of manage over the children. Teachers must declare that they should too be treated with high opinion and their farm duties to make sure that students pleasure each other with compassion. According to the Jones, “teachers are confident to combine their affection and determination towards the students in their classroom, but with practical limits”. Educational accomplishment has been variously defined: as altitude of ability attained in educational occupation or as officially acquired information in school subjects which is frequently represented by percentage of marks obtained by students in examinations (Kohli, 2011). Researchers have exposed that as well being the criteria of encouragement into the subsequently class, educational attainment is a directory of all prospect achievement in life. Greater achievers in the educational earth usually are likely to preserve their level, of attainment in the professional field too. Furthermore, Reis et al. (2011) reported that educational attainment also has an important result on personality assessment of learners. To reach the objective of brilliance in the educational area, and to optimize educational attainment to a greatest, an assessment of correlates of educational accomplishment and its implications for educationists and policy makers would be significant. An official foundation to investigate the determinants of educational attainment as complete with Binet’s attempts to predict children’s educational attainment from their aptitude scores. There is an irresistible proof establishing aptitude as the most important predictor of educational attainment (Karnes et al., 2009). Thorndike (2010) sharp out, a correct communication between intelligence and achievement. Several studies have been done to narrate cognitive style with educational attainment. Field independent subjects were establishing to be elevated on attainment, than field dependent subjects (Holper and Helen, 2010). Comprehensive expectancies urbanized by students to play a vital responsibility in their attainment. Internality (faith in inner Control) is absolutely connected with educational attainment.
The teacher’s individuality and technique of communication with the students has been reported to be a very vital variable in student’s attainment. Pupils like non-authoritarian teacher’s improved, believe free in expressing their difficulties with them, and attain advanced outcome in their classes. Hsu (2011) originate comparable outcome in creating an environment of heat and support can take out better pupil attainment. Modification in school, at home and with peers generates better classroom assurance. Murray and Staebler (2011) reported that teachers achieve on Locus of have power over was directly connected with students achievements. Stake and Norman (2011) reported that teacher magnetism was absolutely connected with academic development, self-confidence and inspiration. However this was accurate only for students with same sex teacher models. Among students with opposed sex models, teacher revulsion was not connected to student development and Marshall Weinstein (2011) reported that teacher’s announcement patterns, and his discrepancy dealing to students as apparent by students was very significant determiners of student’s attainment. Evaluation of individuality characteristics with academic achievement reveals that, there is not easy uncomplicated association between personality and attainment as there are other applicable dominant variables like teaching strategies, age, sex and encouragement level of the learner etc. When teachers, and researchers required finding out the reasons for the better attainment of introverts, a little facts emerged which can be helpful in attractive the academic attainment of extroverts too. It was felt that the low attainment of extroverts might be appropriate to their low encouragement, which makes it complicated for them to sustain attention for long period’s necessary for successful. Academic study Campbell and Hawley (2012) carried out a study between students in the school library, with extroverts attractive more breaks than introverts, and additional worried about selecting a learn position that accessible better socializing opportunities. This requires of the extroverts for societal inspiration may conflict with require for to use time on studies and thus may being too upset their academic pursuits after teenage years. This might be a cause why timidity is connected completely with attainment after 13 years or so only. Instruction strategy has also been establish to be very significant in formative the attainment of extroverts It was establish that extroverts advantage more from familiar, formless teaching methods, though introverts learn better in a prepared learning surroundings with conventional schooling approach. While extroverts were trained by the technique they favored, they were advanced in attainment than introverts, again which was obvious yet a month later (Leith, 2004 and Shadbolt, 2008). Until freshly our educational system has been extremely planned and official consequently the reported academic dominance of introverts might be due to the information that our educational system in geared to the requirements of introverts rather than extroverts, who need a dissimilar instruction strategy, only which stresses personality, individual communication, flexibility and naturalness in instruction. Teachers may be keen on meaningful about sure interference strategies which can develop the accomplishment of students. During this circumstance, result of numerous researches is very applicable. Gauthier et al. (2011) reported that educational accomplishment was improved that the majority by use of three socializing agents via peers, teachers and parents to strengthen academic achievement. Reinforcement using all three agents was the mainly effectual method to advance accomplishment.
Teachers are very important in shaping the self-esteem of students and this is achieved through the kind of relationships that the instructors demonstrate towards students. A proliferation of research from Eschenmann (2010) and other scholars suggests that if Teachers take the time to build relationships they can motivate their students to learn. Further research (Whitaker, 2014) also suggests that Teacher need to have a strong belief that building relationships are important to the motivation process. There is a need to capitalize on these beliefs for the child’s benefit. It is important that educators recognize the impact they have on their students, and consider strongly their students’ perceptions of them (Eschenmann, 2010). Lectures have to ensure that they are meeting student needs, both academically and emotionally. Creating classroom environments that promote positive cultures with healthy interactions can motivate students to channel their energies and desires to reach their goals.
According to Whitaker (2014), the main variable in the classroom is not the student, but the Teacher. Great Teacher have high expectations for their students, but even higher expectations for themselves. These Teachers recognize the importance of connecting with their students, that if they are unable to connect with them emotionally then influencing their minds may be impossible. “Good Teachers put snags in the river of students passing by, and over time, they redirect hundreds of lives… There is an innocence that conspires to hold humanity together …” (Bolman & Deal, 2012).
Whitaker (2014) suggests that Teacher are the first and perhaps most important point of contact in a student’s life. Despite the countless reforms, educational movements, and programs implemented to improve education, no other element can be as profound as the human element. He urges, “It’s the people, not the programs” (Whitaker, 2014).
More profoundly he states, “There are really two ways to improve a school significantly:Get better Teacher and improve the Teacher in the school”.
Teacher knowledge and efficacy of student motivation and achievement are crucial components to creating relationships that motivate. Both Teacher and students have to value their contribution. A student has to feel worthwhile and appreciated. A Teacher needs to recognize that he or she can have a positive effect on their students. Wiseman and Hunt (2010) refer to this as “Teacher efficacy” and note that the more the Teacher believes in this, the more they will cause it to happen.
Meyer & Turner (2012) discussed their findings illustrating the importance of students’ and Teacher’ emotions during instructional interactions. They determined that “through studying student-Teacher interactions, our conceptualization of what constitutes motivation to learn increasingly has involved emotions as essential to learning and teaching”. Their results provide support for further study of the inclusion of interpersonal relationships in the instructional setting and to what degree those relationships affect the students’ learning environment. The quality of the relationship between a student and the Teacher will result in a greater degree of learning in the classroom according to Downey (2008).
Mohrman, Tenkasi, & Mohrman, (2013) assert “lasting change does not result from plans, blueprints, and events, rather change occurs through interaction of participants” (p. 321). Strong Teacher-Pupil relationships may be one of the most important environmental factors in changing a child’s educational path (Baker, 2010). This case study will explore the environmental factors that are deliberately created by the study participant as she interacts with the student on their educational path. As Cazden (2012) asserts, the establishment of social relationships can seriously impact effective teaching and accurate evaluation in a classroom.
Biology is one of the science subjects offered at the senior secondary school levels in Nigerian Secondary Schools, (FRN, 2014). Biology is a very important science subject and a requirement for higher learning in a number of science-related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy. According to Ofoegbu (2013), biology is a science subject done in secondary schools by majority of the students and in most schools, it is optionally compulsory for all students in that, it is one of the core subjects. It is therefore, a science subject that enables students to acquire the knowledge to live effectively in the modern age of science and technology. In contemporary Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development. As a result students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects and one subject that most students opt for is Biology. Today, Biology pervades literally every field of human endeavour and it plays a fundamental role in educational advancement.
The teaching of Biology cannot be done effectively without interaction between the Teacher, students and the environmental resources. The Biology curriculum is planned to enable the Teacher use activity oriented, child-centred approach (guided inquiry) to teach (Nzewi & Nwosu, 2009). However, evidence from research has shown that instructional materials, resources and equipments for science, especially biology are either in short supply or are completely lacking in schools to the extent that most Teacher end up with verbal exposition of scientific principles, facts and concepts. Studies have also revealed that the achievement of Nigerian students in Ordinary Level Biology was generally and consistently poor over the years (Nwagbo, 2010). This has been a major source of concern to the school administrators, parents and the government at large.
Bassey (2012) opined that Biology is resource intensive, and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources, it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of Biology in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found to be expensive and irrelevant ;hence the need to produce materials locally. Researchers such as Ogunleye (2012) and Obioha (2012) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching biology in secondary schools in Nigeria. The authors further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions in most cases. According to Abolade (2014), some of the factory produced/imported instructional materials have also been discovered to be based on foreign ideas and culture. It is against this background that the need to fashion out ways by which local resources can be used for developing instructional materials becomes necessary. There is the need therefore, for improvisation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the past, there were cordial relationship between Teachers and students which encouraged learning, academic achievement and achievement of students. There was a commitment on the part of Teachers, respect and other cultural values were upheld by both parents and students. Teachers are role models to students and an instrument through which students could climb the ladder of greatness in the society. Now, Teacher’s academic support and drilling of students to attain success in all ramifications is diminishing due to certain avoidable factors. Teachers and students convey a range of goals, needs, feelings and behavioral scheme that affect the quality of the relationship they form and influence values of their experiences with one another in the classroom. (Creasey et. al., 2010)
It is not an exaggeration to say that Teachers and students relationship in Nigeria higher Institutions today requires serious attention. The negative perception of Teachers by the majority of students cannot promote a positive relationship. The bad attitude of many students to training is not encouraging as many prioritize their social activities at the expense of their study. Some students take part in associations that are unacceptable in the school community; such as cultism whereby members are terrorizing the lives of other students and Teachers. Some get involve in examination malpractices and other vices that are contrary to social values of the educational system and the society. These are not commensurate to positive relationship between Teachers and students. Lack of commitment and laxity of Teachers in their quality of teaching and availability to help students in solving academic and psycho-social problems is affecting the students. Teachers’ exploitation of students remains a factor that could strain a relationship. Sexual harassment of female students from male students and male Teachers is a big issue in the educational Institutions in Nigeria. Likewise female students’ sexual harassment of the male Teachers in an attempt to pass examination remains a factor that makes positive relationship that can enhance good academic achievement difficult. These and others remain a problem in Nigeria higher institutions, and they could affect academic achievement. (Alpay, 2012).
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of Teacher-Pupil relationship in FCE Abeokuta on their academic achievement. However specific objectives are;
· To examine the effect of teacher-students relationship on students’ academic achievement in biology
· To examine how student perception of Teachers affect academic achievement
· To examine how Teachers of FCE Abeokuta are committed and available to biology students concerning their academic achievement
· To investigate how biology students attitude affect their academic achievement
1.4. Research Questions
This study aims to answer the following questions
· To what extent does the Teacher –student’s relationship of FCE Abeokuta [degree] affect students’ academic achievement?
· How does biology student perception of Teachers affect academic achievement
· How does degree Teacher’s commitment and availability affect academic achievement
· How does biology [degree] students’ attitude affect academic achievement
The following were formulated to guide the investigation
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Teachers –student relationship on the students’ academic achievement in biology
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between student’s perception of Teachers and their academic achievement
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between FCE Abeokuta Teachers commitment and availability and academic achievement of students.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between student’s attitude and academic performance
1.6. Significance of the Study
A major concern in FCE Abeokuta is to increase student (Degree) achievement .the study is therefore significant for the following reasons;
· This study will be useful to both Teachers and students who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic achievement
· It is also useful for institutions to enhance Teacher-Pupils’ relationship through professional development
1.7. Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study centres on the effect of Teacher- student relationship on student academic achievement of students in FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OSIELE ABEOKUTA in affiliation with UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN (BIOLOGY STUDENTS)
It is aimed at all students in CEDEP but due to time constrain, money and other factors it will be limited only to BIOLOGY STUDENTS OF CEDEP..