Background to the Study

Teachers at different stages use examination to assess and evaluate the academic achievement of students in the school system. In all teaching and learning situations therefore, it is essential to find out from time to time how much the students are achieving from what they are being taught. In order to do this effectively, Teachers Examination Council, National Teachers Institute (NTI), Classroom Teachers etc. assess the students by administering weekly, termly, end of year test and or final examinations. The overall aim of education is to shape the behaviour of an individual, so that he or she can perform most effectively within his/her social milieu.

Bearing in mind the role that education plays in nation building, a nation stands the risk of being under developed in terms of accumulation of illiteracy, disease and poverty when its youths rejects the honour of getting sound education and seems to opt for fraudulent activities and deceptive ways in making ends meet as epitomized by examination malpractices thereby negating the philosophy of sound education. The products of such a system can only grow up to be cynics, unbelievers, insensible, dishonest, ignorant, narrow-minded, myopic, unintelligent, deceptive, close-minded, one sided beings who would be indifferent to the issues of development and powerless to act, create and succeed.

Examination malpractices have a paralyzing effect on the developing nation. It puts our youth, future leaders and professionals in a situation that leads to a future of social, political and economic insanity and bankruptcy. Engaging in examination malpractice leads to cancellation of results which means great waste of resources to society and parents, and provides sources of great agony and injustice to innocent students.

The importance of examination or test taking for diagnosis, placement, classification and quality control in Nigerian institutions have been greatly eroded and corrupted with malpractice which constitute one of the most debilitating problems facing our education institutions today, and they are constantly manifested and reported in our schools, colleges and other higher institutions.

Examination malpractice is any activity of a student or group of students whose purpose is to give any of them higher grades than they would likely receive on the basis of their own achievements. Fatai (2005) defines it as any irregular act exhibited by candidates or anybody charged with the conduct of examination which is clearly a breach of the rules governing the conduct and integrity of the examination. It is viewed as any act carried out before, during and after an examination, which is against the rules set out for the proper and orderly conduct of the examination, which is clearly a breach of the rules governing the conduct and integrity of the examination. It has been further described as an action done to gain undue advantage over other candidates which is against the rule and regulations governing the conduct of such examination for personal gain. Ojerinde (2000) revealed that cheating in examinations is motivated by:

i. The desperation to acquire certificate or get placed in a programme or be selected for a position.

ii. Carelessness on the part of the teacher/examiners in safeguarding the examination paper before it is administered.

The National Policy on Education (FGN 2004) stipulates that there is need for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united Nigeria. To this end, school programmes needed to be relevant, practical and comprehensive: while interest and ability should determine individual direction in education. 

Examination malpractice is any illegal act committed by a student single handedly or in collaboration with others; like fellow students, parents, teachers, supervisors, invigilators, printers and anybody or group of people before, during or after examination in order to obtain undeserved marks or grades (Wilayat, 2009). The West African Examinations Council (1992) referred to examination malpractice as any irregular behaviour exhibited by candidates or officials charged with the responsibility of conducting examination, in or outside the examination hall, before, during  or  after  such  examination.  It involves various methods employed bycandidates to cheat during examinations. Similarly, Shonekan (1996) stated thatexamination malpractice isanactofomissionorcommissionthatcontravenesthose West African Examinations Council’s rules and regulations to the extent ofundermining the validity and reliability of the test and ultimately the integrity of the certificate issued by the Council. Examination malpractice does not occur in the examinationhallalone,itoccursbefore,duringandevenaftertheexamination.

Some forms of examination malpractices are copying on sheetofpapers,handkerchiefs, desk/chairs; swapping of answer booklets and collusionwithothercandidatesorexternalagents.Othersincludeleakageofexaminationquestionsbefore the actual examination day. In some schools,especially, thoseprivatelyowned, the school authorities sometimes bribe invigilators, supervisorsandpolicepersonnel drafted to the centres so that they could turn a blindeyewhenmalpractices are being perpetrated. Electronic gadgets likecalculators,organizers,radio walkman and mobile phones are also used to carryoutexaminationmalpractices.Annually,examinationbodiesgivewarningstothecandidatestodesistfrombringingmobilephonesintotheexaminationhallsbuteachyear,theuseofmobilephonestocommitexaminationmalpracticeisrecorded(Onyechere,2007).

Other forms of examination malpractices are bringing books or cribs into the hall, insulting or assaulting supervisor or invigilator, replacement of answer script with another one during or after the examination, impersonation, smuggling scripts written outside into the examination hall, writing on thigh, stretching of neck like the Giraffe to look at the work of a fellow candidate, hooligans gaining entry into the examination hall by force when examination is in progress, to remove question paper, talking, dictation of answers to students, e.t.c.

The over-dependence on certificate, if care is not taken would create a situation where educational products in Nigeria are not able to perform what is expectedofthem. Pooreconomy,withlowincometomeettheevergrowinghumanwants,could be a factor where teachers and supervisors engage in examination malpractice. According to Olushola,(2006), examination malpractices could be encouraged as a result of:

1) The desire to pass at all cost: Paul (2012) agreed on the fact that students nowadays are no longer hard working and dedicated towards their academic endeavours. They are characterized by a desire for success and wealth without a corresponding emphasis on legitimate means and avenues to be used positively in achieving Success. The desire to pass at all cost is responsible for examination malpractices.

2) Emphasis on certificate: Nigeria’s education system is largely certificate and good grades oriented. Students, Parents, School management and others tend to push harder to get the certificate and good grades by all means. Believing that this will foster the means to acquire a lucrative job in future.As a result, much value and emphasis are placed on certificate instead of knowledge, skills and competence.

3) Societal factor: Itedjere (2006) sees it from the moral tone of the society: that it is a statement of truth that the school, like any other social institution, does not exist in a vacuum but rather within a geopolitical and socio-milieu. Hence, behaviours are expected to conform and reflect the acceptable societal norms and ethics and regard various functional roles and the executions of duties and services.

Also, Okafor (1990) blamed the society for examination malpractices. He said: in a country where dishonesty has been enshrined by the adult sector as an idol of worship. Children have learnt to steal with impunity, practice examination malpractices (in all shades and forms) as a simple reflection of the society. 

4) The Teacher: The teacher is the main focus of change and the anchor in the teaching-learning process. Paul (2012) opined that teachers are like parents to children while they are in schools. They are to students like a shepherd to cows.

Statement of the Problem

Examination malpractice is one of the social problems that is disturbing the Nigerianeducationsectoranditrequiresapromptremedy.Examinationmalpracticeoccursin all levels of the Nigerian educational sector but the focus of this study is the public senior secondary education level. A lot of failures and anomalies happen in the careers of individuals because of the impact of the scourge of examinationmalpracticeatthiscruciallevelofeducation.Themorethegovernment, principals,examinationbodiesandotherwell-meaningindividualstrytofindsolutions to the problem, the more the perpetrators also device ways to frustrate suchefforts. The problem is becoming more scientific by the day; it is metamorphosing fromthe era of candidates copying from fellow candidates to using sophisticated electronic gadgetssuchascellphonesandconcealedearpieces.

Theproblemofexamination malpractice has reduced certificates issued in Nigeria into a worthless paper, such thatanumberofcandidateswithoutstandingresultscannotdefendtheircertificates.The performances of such candidates might not commensurate to the quality of their certificates. The problem of the study therefore istofind out the innovative strategies for public senior secondary students academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara StateNigeria. 

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of examination malpractice strategies on student academic performance in Senior Public Secondary Schools Ilorin West Local Government. 

Specifically, the purposes are to:

i. Examine the factor responsible for examination malpractices among senior secondary school students;

ii. Investigate forms of examinationmalpractices common among senior secondary school student;

iii. Find out the effect ofexaminationmalpractices on senior secondary school student academic performance;

iv. Suggest the various strategies to effectively curb examination malpractices in senior secondary schools;


The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

1. What are the factors responsible for examination malpractices among Senior Secondary Schools student in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State? 

2. What forms of examination malpractices are common among Senior Secondary Schools students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State?

3. What are the effects of examination malpractices on Senior Secondary Schools students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State?

Research Hypotheses 

The following were formulated to guide the conduct of this research work;

HO1: There is no significant difference in the perception of male and female students on factors responsible for examination malpractice in Senior Secondary School in Ilorin West Local Government.

HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean response scores of male and female students on the forms of examination malpractice in Senior Secondary School in Ilorin West Local Government.

Significance of the Study

The findings of the study would be very useful to the following stakeholders: students, teachers, parents, ministries of education, examination bodies and employers of labour.

All students/researchers, who are carrying out researches on examination malpractices and other related topics, will find findings of the study useful. Thestudy provides useful information for the review of related literature on the causes, types, methods, reasons for examination malpractice, the various availablemeasuresputinplaceforstudent academic performance inNigeria.

Findings of the studywillaidthestudents/researcherstohaveknowledgeoftheworkthathasbeen donebythecurrentresearcheronstudent academic performance inorderforthem toconductfurtherstudiesinunexploredareas.

The findings of the study will further reveal more forms ofexamination malpractices,whystudentsperpetrate it,thevariousslogansstudent/candidatesuse to identify different forms of examination malpractices. Having the knowledgeabout examinationmalpracticeprovidestheteachersopportunitytodevicewaysto reduce the occurrence or eventually curbit.

TheFederalandStateMinistriesofEducationbeingpolicymakersasregards education, at the federal and state levels in Nigeria would benefit from the findings of the study in formulating educational policies, bearing in mind, how to stem examinationmalpracticewhichhasalwaysledtowrongdecisionsabouttheproducts of schools in Nigeria. The findings of the study would be used by the federal and State Ministries of Education as a policy to all educational institutionsthatareconcernedwiththeadministrationofexaminationsandawardof certificates;tocurbthemenaceofexaminationmalpracticeinallexaminationsthese bodies conduct in order to enhance the validity and reliability of such examinations; whichalsoconcernstheMinistryof Education.

Thefindingsofthestudy will also beusefultoallexaminationbodies inandoutsideNigeriainthesensethatitgivesadequateinformationonthedifferent new tactics candidates’ device in perpetrating examination malpractices. The knowledge of both the old and new tactics like smuggling in of chips and using electronic gadgets respectively used in committing examination malpractices should enable the examination bodies to come up with adequate measurestopreventthem.

The employers of labour who are the main users of school products will find the study very useful; as it aids them to know how to device diverse employmentproceduresinordertoemploytherightcandidateforagivenvacancyin a particular office. In this way they can separatethe sheep from the goats and thus, ensuringthatroundpegsareplacedinroundholes.

All school administrators in the primary, senior secondary and tertiary levelswillbemadetorealizeandnipexaminationmalpracticesinthebud.Thefindings of the study should show some of the known sophisticated methods of examination malpractices. The findings of the study would further unfold the dangers of examination malpractices and also enable these administrators to appreciate that, hard work alone can bring lasting success; a philosophy that should be extendedtotheirstudents.

Allperpetratorsofexaminationmalpracticesareexpectedtofindthefindingsof the study useful. The study would enable them to see the need to desist fromsuch unhealthy act(s) and turn a new leaf; since the study explains how examination malpractices destroy individuals and the country at large.

Scope of the Study

The research work focuses on the examination malpractices strategies and students academic performance in senior secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area Kwara State. This research work covers all public senior secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. However only ten (10) senior secondary schools will be randomly selected and used as a case study. Also, the study will be delimited to the use of well structured questionnaire to elicit relevant information from the sample respondents while the information gathered would be subjected both descriptive and inferential statistics.    

Operational Definition of Term

Influence: To have an effect on a particular situation and the way that is develop

Malpractices:This refers to careless, wrong or illegal behaviourduring examination.

Examination: A formal written, spoken or practical test, especially at school or college, to see how much you know about a subject or what you can do. 

Misconduct: This refers to careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in an examination. Effect: This refers to the consequence or influence or exerted as a result of examination malpractice.  

Cheat: To trick or deceive somebody, especially when they trust you. 

Causes: This refers to various factor which prompt students to in examination malpractice. 

Ethics: This refers to moral principles that control or influence a person’s behaviour. 

Strategies:This refers to various forms or techniques in which students engage in examination malpractice.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing