AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT EFFORT ON THE PROVISION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY
In this study attempt was made to asses government effort in the provision of portable water water supply in Bida local government area. The study investigates the extent and condition of water supply as well as source of portable water in the study area. However, in the course of the study, questionnaire was developed and used to generate data. The data obtain from the administration of questionnaire was presented and analyzed using both descriptive and influential statistics. The study found that large proportion of the house hold in bida local government relies on public water sources. The hypothesis formatted was rejected was rejected in favor of H1 hypothesis
TABLE OF CONTENT page
Title page - i
List of Table vii
List of Figure viii
Table of content ix-xi
Statement of research problem4
Aims and objectives5
Scope of the study6
Type and source of data6
Method of data collection7
Techniques of presentation of result7
The study area7
Geology and Relief7
Soil and Vegetation8
Source of water 14
2.4 Those responsible for provision of water 15
Problems of water supply17
Conceptual frame work21
3.0 Data presentation and Analysis 22-34
Summary of the major finding35
Test of research hypothesis37
4.7 Appendix 40-42
Nigeria has enormous quantity of water resources, surface and underground, that requires a well-articulated administrative structure that can manage the resources effectively. The present position of water supply in Nigeria is grossly inadequate. The Federal, States and Local Governments have over the years been intervening from time to time in terms of the provision of potable water to the people through the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), River Basin Authorities, DFRRI, National Water Supply Rehabilitation Project, National Borehole programme and of course, the present government‘s Legislative Boreholes. Despite these efforts, potable water supply is still poor and grossly inadequate. In reality, the problem of water supply in Nigeria is enormous and can only be solved through properly coordinated approach so as to overcome the problem.
According to Babatola (1997), Offodile (2003, 2006), Nwankwoala &Mmom (2008), water supply lies at the heart of development whether it is urban or rural. Water supply and development of any nation are continuing long-term process which requires careful planning and implementation geared towards achieving improved conditions of life. Consequently, there should be an overhaul/review of the existing water policy or a new national water policy that would involve a comprehensive hydro geological mapping of the country. The exercise must be based on known groundwater and surface water sources (Mobogunje, 1975).
According to Uwais, (2004) man cannot survive longer without food than water. But because water is freely available through rainfall, man has until fairly recently, taken this unique resources for granted.
Although more than 70% of the earth surface is water, water has become a scarce commodity in many part of the world. The threat of a world water crisis becoming increasingly real in the face of increase demand, relatively statistic supply and deteriorating quality due to over exploitation. It is universally accepted that an adequate supply of water for drinking, personal hygiene and other domestic purposes is essential to public health and wellbeing. It is well known fact that large number of people in Nigeria mostly those in rural area lack safe portable drinking water, in about 90% of the rural communities in Nigeria are lacking portable for their domestic activities. (uwais, 2004)
As stakeholders in water and sanitation business converged on the Hague, Netherland on march 22 to mark the 2013 edition of the world water day, the authorities at Niger State ministry of water resources dedicate the day to takes stocks of it achievement and to marshal out ways of improving on it effort of tackling the challenges of supplying portable water to the 4.5 million people spread across the 25 Local Government Area of the state.
The ministry also embarks on other semi-urban water supply schemes in the state and introducing mini water scheme in Kuta, Madaka, Mashegu, Agwara, Lemu and Kata eregi. It produces several borehole rigs for drilling of borehole in communities and trains some of it staff on water related issues both locally and abroad. The state has also brought several water supply vehicles and distributed some to the 25 Local Government Areas for distribution of water to communities known to be facing water shortages which has aimed to reduce the problem of water scarcity in these communities.
At the global scene, there has been continuing efforts in respect of sustainable management of water resources. The Earth Summit, the World Water Commission, the World Water Forum as well as other water related projects of Global Water Partnership, such as World Bank, WHO, UNESCO, FAO, UNICEF and UNDP, have been at the forefront in the timely efforts of water resources management, especially in the provision of safe drinking water and basic sanitation which is within the frameworks of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the early 1950s, government‘s has attempted to develop groundwater by exploring the ground water potentials across the country. This led to construction of hand dug shallow wells especially in rural areas. The Nigerian government’s major intervention in water resources development came during the first National Development Plan (1962 – 1968) which saw the establishment of the River Niger and Lake Chad Basin Commissions. In 1973 and 1974, the Sokoto-Rima and Chad Basin Authorities were established. In 1976, the river basin authorities were increased to eleven (11) to cover the whole country. But, before then in 1975, the Federal Ministry of Water Resources (FMWR) was created. Following the creation of the ministry, extensive water resources development (both surface and groundwater) was embarked upon to boost economic activities such as irrigation, fisheries as well as hydropower generation. More importantly, all these giant strides were aimed at improving water supply delivery in line with the United Nation‘s International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD, 1981 – 1990). Beside these noble efforts, the Federal Government embarked upon other numerous intervention programs in the water sector, including the National Borehole Project (1980), Department of Food, Roads, and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) in 1986 -1994, The Petroleum (Special) Trust Fund (PTF) Rural Water Supply Project (1995-1999), Improved National Access to Water Supply (1999) and lastly the Senate Constituency Water Projects (2001 to date) (Nwankwoala, 2010).
Drinking water or potable water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the tap water supplied to households, commerce and industry meets the water quality standards to qualify as potable, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Typical uses other than drinking and cooking include washing, toilet flushing, and irrigation (USEPA,2010).
Due to high level of poverty in Nigeria, safe portable drinking water is a scarce resource especially in rural areas. It is against this background that this study seeks to assess the accessibility of portable water In Bida local Government area of Niger state.
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Over 90% of deaths from diarrheal diseases in the developing world today occur in children under 5 years old (Salman 2004). Malnutrition, especially protein-energy malnutrition, can decrease the children's resistance to infections, including water-related diarrheal diseases. From 2000-2003, 769,000 children under five years old in sub-Saharan Africa died each year from diarrheal diseases. As a result of only thirty-six percent of the population in the sub- Saharan region have access to proper means of sanitation. More than 2000 children's lives are lost every day. In South Asia, 683,000 children under five years old died each year from diarrheal disease from 2000-2003. During the same time period, in developed countries, 700 children under five years old died from diarrheal disease. Safe drinking water is therefore a prerequisite for good health.(USEPE2010).
Therefore improved portable water supply reduces the frequency of water related illness and deaths, especially in area like Bida local government area.
Therefore it is essential to find out;
1. What is the source of water supply in Bida Local Government?
2. Are these sources of water supply safe for drinking and other domestic uses?
3. Was there any effort made by Niger State and Bida local Government council in improving water supply in the study area?
These form the research Question that will be pursued in this study.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to assess the government effort in the provision of portable water supply in Bida local government area of Niger state. This can be achieved through the following specific objectives.
1) To identify source of water supply in Bida local Government.
2) To identify the origin of water supply facilities.
3) To examine the functionality of water supply facilities.
4) To identify the ease with which people access these sources.
5) To find out who is responsible for maintaining water sources.
HO;there is no any effort made by Government in providing portable water supply in Bida local government
H1; There are a lot of effort made by Government in providing portable water supply in Bida Local Government.
Virtually, it is justifiable to carry out a tentative research works on the assessment of government effort in provision of portable water supply in Bida town, so as to be used as tentative guide in the provision of portable water.
This study wills also reveals the efforts made by Niger State government in previous years in the provision of portable water, particularly in Bida Local Government Area.
It is equally, justifiable to provide with basic knowledge of its benefit and the basic measures to adopt for the research problem.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the assessment of government effort on the provision of portable water supply with reference to Bida local government area of Niger state
This research project is designed to study the assessment of government effort in the provision of portable water supply in Bida local government area of Niger state.
TYPE AND SOURCES OF DATA
Generally there are two major sources of data for a research of this nature i.e primary and secondary sources.
In this research, both sources were used in the course of data collection. Primary sources of data refer to the searching for detail by oneself through asking question (i.e. the use of questionnaire) interview and observation.
Secondary sources of data on the other hand refers to the use of records of what have already been done which is related to the research work, such records are usually obtain from Text books and journals.
A total number of 50 questionnaires were used to collect information from respondent from respondent within the study area.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The instrument used in the process of data collection for this research work was the use of questionnaire which was administered in the study area, by using a Random sampling technique in the selection of respondent.
To carry out this research project chi-square analytical techniques was employed for the purpose generalization, finding and conclusions.
TECHNIQUE OF PRESENTATION OF RESULT
This study employed descriptive statistics, such as table, simple percentage to organized data.
THE STUDY AREA
Bida local government is in Niger State. It is situated between latitude 90 051N and 60 011E. The local government has an area of 512km2 and it equally bounded by Gbako local government to the North, lavun local government to the south, and katcha local government to the west.
The population of Bida is 171,656 according to the Geo name database.
GEOLOGY AND RELIEF
. Geochemical investigations show that potential source rocks in the Bida Basin are gas- prone. Potential reservoir units occur in the fluvial sandstones of the Lokoja Formation and in the shelf and flood plain sandstones of the Patti Formation. The shales and claystones of the Patti and Agbaja Formations may provide regional seals. Different trap configurations are possible in the basin, ranging from traps within uplifted blocks, traps in drapes and/or compacted structures over deep horsts to stratigraphic traps along flanks of uplifted blocks. Cross-sections indicate that the area around Bida, and to the south of Bida around Pategi, Muregi, Baro, Agbaja, Ahoko, Abaji, GadaBiyu, are particularly prospective.( Oyebande 1978)
Bida experiences two distinct seasons the dry and wet seasons. The annual rainfall is about 1,600mm. The duration of the rainy season ranges from 150 210 days.
Mean maximum temperature remains high throughout the year, hovering about 32A°F, particularly in March and June. However, the lowest minimum temperatures occur usually between December and January when the town come under the influence of the tropical continental air mass which blows from the north. Dry season in Bida commences in October.
. (Oyebande 1978)
SOIL AND VEGETATION
The most predominant soil type is the ferruginous tropical soils which are basically derived from the Basement Complex rocks, as well as from old sedimentary rocks. Such ferruginous tropical soils are ideal for the cultivation of guinea corn, maize, millet and groundnut. (Oyebande 1978)
Hydromorphic or waterlogged soils are largely found in the extensive flood plain of the Niger River. The soils arepoorly drained and are generally greyish or sometimes whitish in color due to the high content of silt. Ferosols which developed on sandstone for mations can be found within the Niger trough. (Oyebande 1978)
Their characteristic red color enriched with a clay sub soil is noticeable in the landscape. Termite hills dot the landscape, these can been seen along the major highways in the area. The Southern Guinea Savannah vegetation covers the entire landscape of the areaLike in other states of similar vegetation, it is characterized by woodlands and tall grasses interspersed with tall dense species. However, within the Niger trough and flood plains occurs taller trees and a few oil palm trees. In some areas, traces of rain forest species can be seen ( Oyebande 1978)..