EFFECT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND INTEREST IN CHEMISTRY (A CASE STUDY OF NASSARAWA EDUCATIONAL ZONE, KANO STATE)
This study was carried out to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction on secondary schools students‟ academic achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 117 students. The sample consisted of the intact classes, one experimental group with 68 students and the other one as control group had 49 students. A random sampling technique using balloting method was used in selecting the two schools out of the 65 public secondary schools in Nassarawa Education Zone. A pre-test-post-test quasi experimental design was used. The instrument used was Chemistry Achievement Test(CAT) and Chemistry Interest Rating Scale(CIRS) which were both validated and with reliability coefficients of 0.75 and 0.78 respectively. The hypotheses stated were tested using t-test statistics at P ≤0.05 level of significance. Major findings of the study revealed that there is significance difference in the academic achievement and interest rating among secondary school students exposed to computer assisted instruction .But there is no significance difference in the academic achievement and interest in Chemistry rating scale between male and female students exposed to computer assisted instruction. In the light of the findings from this study, the following recommendation was made among others. School authorities and government agency in charge of managing the affairs of secondary schools should make provision of computers and education softwares and train teachers with the current development in the methodology of teaching and learning chemistry.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Approval Page iii
Table of Content vii
Background to the Study ------1
Statement of the Problem ------3
Purpose of the Study------4
Significance of the Study ------7
Scope of the Study-------8
Students‟ Achievement in Chemistry--- 11
Effect of Gender on Students‟ Achievement in
Chemistry - - - - - - - - 13
The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted
Instructions (CAI) - - - - - - - 20
Factor Affecting Students‟ Achievement in
Chemistry - - - - - - - - 22
Area of Study--------27
3.4 Population - - - - - - - - 28
Sample and Sampling Techniques----28
Instrument for Data Collection -----28
Validation of Instrument------29
Reliability of Instrument------30
Method of Data Administration -----30
Administration of Instrument-----31
Method of Data Analysis------31
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data - - - - 33
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation--44
Summary of Findings------45
Implication of Findings------46
5.3 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 47
Limitation of the Study------50
Suggestions for Further Research----50
Reference - - - - - - - - - 52
Appendix I - - - - - - - - 56
Appendix II - - - - - - - - 60
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This is no simple and universal definition of science and technology, but the easiest way to understand these two concepts is while science gives man a conceptual frame work of his physical and social world, technology equips man with the tools, knowledge, skills, techniques and attitudes of mind with which to respond to the challenges to the world. Hensicke (2009), sees technology as the application of knowledge and skills in solving practical problems that is the knowledge and skills applied in using artifact and processes.
Abdullahi (2007), stated that science is and activity culminating into a testable falsable, verifiable body of knowledge through systematic and rational organization of facts about a particular phenomenon of interest. Science is mainly concerned with understanding natural phenomenon and creating conceptual frame works for its explanation. The practical manifestation of
science in tools, and know how, which can best be described as technology? Briefly, technology provides man lie support system that maintains him on the planet earth.
Chemistry is a branch of science; its genesis can be traced to certain practices, known as Alchemy, which had been practiced for several decades in various part of the world, particularly in Middle East. (Ancient Chemistry (2009), Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of chemical substance that are constituted of atoms or sub-atomic particles – protons, electrons, and neutrons, chemistry Encyclopedia (2010), Iwuagu (2009), defined it as the science concerned with the composition, structure and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reaction.
Our world is made up of matter; we study chemistry to acquire knowledge about matter. We perform experiment and learn to observe record and make intelligent inferences. Studying chemistry gives us training in scientific methods.
Computer assisted instruction plays very crucial role in teaching content effectively. If there are qualified teachers, recommended textbooks, but no adequate computer assisted
instruction facilities, this may affect learning and teaching of chemistry. It is on this note that this study is considered necessary.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Observation over the years is that students‟ achievement in chemistry at senior secondary school level (SSCE), has not been very encouraging. According to WAEC (2012), candidates that offered Chemistry performed poorly in the areas of understanding of the concepts of equilibrium of reversible reaction, writing of formulae and correct balanced chemical equations as well as explanation of basic chemical principles, concepts and their applications. Many factors can contribute to this unacceptable trend the poor performance of chemistry students. One of such factors could be lack/inadequate computer assisted instruction facilities in our schools.
This study therefore intends to make a trust into the problem and thus pose the following questions:
a) What is the effect of computer assisted instruction on students‟ achievement and interest in the study of chemistry?
b) To what extent does the effect of computer assisted instruction affect students‟ achievements and interest in chemistry?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of the study therefore was to investigate the effect of the computer assisted instruction on students‟ achievement and interest in chemistry in some L.G.A of Kano state of Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to finds out whether:
1) There is significance difference in mean achievement of students taught using computer assisted instructions and those taught using conventional teaching method.
2) There is significance difference in mean interest rating between students taught using computer assisted instruction and those taught using the conventional teaching method.
3) There is significance difference in mean achievement score between boys and girls taught using computer assisted instructions.
4) There is significance difference in mean interest rating score between boys and girls taught using computer assisted instructions.
The research is set out to answer the following questions:
(1) What is the mean achievement scores of students taught chemistry with computer assisted instructions and those taught using the conventional teaching method?
(2) What are the mean interest ratings of students taught chemistry with computer assisted instructions and those taught using the conventional teaching method?
(3) Is there any significance difference in the achievement?
(4) To what extent does the interest of rating of boys and girls differ from girls taught chemistry using computer assisted instructions?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught chemistry with computer assisted instructions and those taught using conventional teaching method.
HO2: There is no significant difference between the mean interest rating of students taught chemistry with computer assisted instructions and those taught using conventional teaching method.
H03: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of boys and girls taught chemistry using computer assisted instructions.
HO4: There is no significant difference in the mean interest rating between of boys and girls taught chemistry using computer assisted instructions.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research was under-taken in order to find out if there is an effect of computer assisted instruction on secondary school students‟ achievement and interest in chemistry.
The study is targeted at providing parents, teachers, students and the teachers‟ ways of encouraging a better performance for student in chemistry.
To the Chemistry Teacher, this study will generally help in guiding and directing the teacher in the preparation of the lesson plan, that will relate to students computer assisted instruction in their home to ignite, stimulate sustain and develop student interest in chemistry in particular and science in general.
To the curriculum planners, the findings of this study will make it necessary now than before to specify appropriate instructional strategies for enhancing students‟ interest and making their subject students-centered. This will in turn help teachers/students develop interest in chemistry classes.
To the Government and non-Governmental organizations the findings will provide a different point of view if the issue of poor performance of students in chemistry and sciences in general is to be tackled, holistically it will emphasize the need for organizing policies, seminars, lecturers, workshops, etc. that will be aimed at developing improving students interest in chemistry for the nation to advance to a higher level in science and technology.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited to determining the effect of computer assisted instructions on achievements and interest of senior secondary school students in chemistry in Kano state as well as the effects on the learning outcomes with regards to gender.
The study was carried out to find the effect of computer assisted instruction among senior secondary school students‟ achievement and interest in chemistry. The class of interest is senior secondary (SSII) chemistry students only in two selected secondary schools in Kano Metropolis, Kano state Nigeria.
This study will be carried out in Nassarawa Educational Zone of Kano State. The class of interest is senior secondary II (SS II), Chemistry classes. The content area to be covered in the study will be delimited to chemistry senior secondary II scheme of works Week II to week viii topics.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study was a pre-test, post-test, quasi-experimental-control research design to determine effects of computer assisted instruction on secondary school students achievement and interest in chemistry in Kano state.
To fulfill these objectives, four research questions were formulated and four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was chemistry students from the two senior secondary schools offering chemistry at SSCE level in Kano State. The sample size was 117 students from which
68 SSII students constituted the students in the experimental group and 49 SSII students constituted the students in the control group. The instruments used in this study include: chemistry achievement Test (CAT) and Interest in Chemistry Rating Scale(ICRS).
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1. Students taught chemistry with computer assisted instruction had a higher mean achievement score than those students taught using the conventional teaching method in the achievement test. The mean was found significant.
2. Students taught chemistry with computer assisted instruction had a higher mean interest rating score than those students taught using the conventional teaching method. The mean was found to be significant.
3. Male Students taught chemistry with computer assisted instruction had a slightly higher mean score than the female students taught using the computer assisted instruction. The mean was found insignificant.
4. The study revealed that male students taught chemistry with computer assisted instruction approach had a higher mean interest rating score than female taught
with same computer assisted instruction. But the man was found to be significant.
IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS
The findings of this study have implications for the technical teaching of chemistry and other sciences of secondary schools, curriculum planners and the society. The finding of this study revealed that computer tutorial improved students achievement, and interest in chemistry than the conventional methods. The implication of these findings is that students studying chemistry will learn better develop much interest and retain their learning better when computer tutorial is used for teaching chemistry by the teachers. Also, technical teachers have to adopt the use of computer tutorial to create student-centered classroom in the teaching of chemistry at the secondary schools in Kano state.
The adoption of the computer tutorial in the teaching of computer requires development of software and well equipped computer laboratory for its effective implementation. This implies that schools administrators and the governments needs to constantly make provisions for the employment of computer
programmers who will be working with the teacher as well as computer set and consumables that will provide the teachers and students the opportunity of using the computer tutorial for chemistry teaching and learning in the secondary schools in Kano state.
The findings of this study also have implications, to the curriculum planners of secondary schools curriculum and the society at large.
Application of computer technology to all aspect of human endeavour coupled with the need to create student-centered classroom to engage learners in their learning tasks, improve learners and consequently achievement in the school subjects has necessitated the use of computer in teaching. This study has found out the computers tutorial improves students achievement and interest in chemistry than conventional teaching methods.
The study also found out that no significant irrespective of gender, students studying chemistry will record improved
performance in their achievement and interest in chemistry when computer assisted instructional method is used for teaching. These results therefore revealed that computer-based learning is a viable alternative to the conventional teaching methods in teaching chemistry.
Moreover computer assisted instruction provides powerful tools to support shift to student-centered learning and is capable of creating a more interactive and engaging learning environment for teachers and learners.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made.
1. More attention should be accorded computer literacy and operation in the secondary school and relevant computer assisted instructional packages should be developed for use within the Nigerian school system. In addition, Nigerian public schools should be equipped with necessary ICT facilities to reiterate the potential of ICT in Nigerian schools. Technical
teachers of chemistry in Kano state should adopt the use of computer tutorial to teach chemistry.
2. Further empirical studies should be carried out on the use of computers for instructional purposes, on different subject and at different levels to provide sound basic for the integration of computer in Nigerian schools.
3. Curriculum planners such as Nigerian Educational researches and developments council (NERDC) school consider review of curriculum for chemistry for secondary schools with a view to incorporating the computer tutorials.
4. Since the findings of this study showed that students who worked on the computer-based instruction performed better than those who adopted the conventional teaching method, students should be encouraged to develop interest in the use of computer.
5. Kano state government should provide relevant equipment for teaching chemistry in all the secondary schools.
6. Kano sate ministry of education and principals of Kano state senior secondary schools should organize seminars,
conferences and workshops to sensitive technical teachers on the use of computer assisted instructional approach.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following are the limitations of the study:
1. The sample used in this study was limited to only secondary schools and SSII students in one educational zone, Kano State. An extension of the study to their classes, private owned schools and rural schools should be carried out in order to be able to generalize the findings.
2. The topics used for the experimental treatment were four topics from the SSII scheme of Work in Chemistry.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
The following are suggested in further research:
1. This study should be replicated in other geo-political zones in Nigeria.
2. Effects of computer assisted learning in other areas of vocational subjects such as mental work, wood work, building, agriculture and home economics should be studies in order to find out whether there is any difference in CTD effectiveness..