SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS VIEW OF THE INTRODUCTION OF RELIGION AND NATIONAL VALUES CURRICULUM IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION
Background to the Study
A nation that dreams greatness needs to invest in the strategies inculcation of national values, and such strategic investment depends on several factors
- The scope of the value
- The source
- The Nature
- Role models and instructor
- Institutional structure
By scope mean the reach of the value deemed national, it is unavoidably tautology to suggest that national values must be national inscope. A national value cannot be ethnic or sectarian, of course this does suggest that a value that is acceptable to one ethnic cannot be acceptable to other group. Meaning that it must be embraced by or considered us worthy of the embrace of others.
Secondly the source of the value, how do members of the nation come to recognize it as a value worthy of embrace. National value cannot originate from diverse sources. Fortunately, despite the division of tribe and tongues in dear country. We have one alone-divisive source of our value. It is the constitution which provides a copious account of the fundamental objective and directive principle to state policy.
Chapter 2 of the 1999 constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria provides a list of our national values, the ideal that we stand for and which government and citizen have a duty to embrace and promote it reiterates our republicanism which vest sovereignty in the people with right to participate in government and the duty to discharge the responsibilities that correlates with that right, we affirm peace, progress, unity and faith as national ideal worth living for and if necessary worth dying for.
Thirdly by their nature these ingredients of our national value are positive roadmaps for national development and national integration, provided there is sufficient adherence to their dictate. And that is what has been lacking. The lack is in two area if we are to inculcate national value, there must be instructors and role modes for that purpose, but genueinstructors are lacking not because no expect teachers of values but because there is more instruction and role modeling that role teaching and learning. Role model set a pattern of behaviour that is emulated by the followers.
Fourthly, there must be adequate institutional structure through the auspices of which national value are disseminated and inculcated. Prominent among the institutions that have been traditionally taken up this taken up this task are schools, religion institutions, voluntary organisation, such as Boys scout and Girls guide e.t.c in the Colonial post-colonial and pre-military era. These are the veritable institution that took in the responsibility of inculcating national value.
By the same token, making religion study compulsory while History is removed from the curriculum doesn’t make sense. The rather is solely needed for heightened sense of national value. It affords us a common memory of our core value, History to enable us to make useful investigation of our national value, social, moral and political value therefore, for promoting national values it makes better sense to make history, rather than religion knowledge compulsory in our school curriculum (SegunGbadegesin April 29, 2016).
The social studies curriculum has been a frequent target of critics representing every point on the political spectrum. The educators argue that history is neglected and traditional value are missing, others contend that the curriculum lacks social relevance and avoid significant public issue, most agree, however, that religion is not adequately included in the social studies curriculum.
They argue that teachers, administrators, school boards, and textbook publishers have tended to step social studies courses of all but the most bland references to religion as a social force in the past and present. As a result, student are prevented from learning in school about one of the most significant factors in human societies from the prehistoric era to the world today.
Religion is a major force in human affairs and as such should be included in the socialstudies curriculum. This ERIC Digest examines
(1) Reasons for including religion in the curriculum
(2) The current status of religion studies in school
(3) Guidelines for including religion in the social studies curriculum
(4) Ideas for teaching religion in the social studies
It is impossible to understand much of history without knowing about religion. If student are to comprehend and interpret their world, they must learn about religion and its influence on civilization of the past and present if student are to know and values the civilization, they must learn about the Judaic-Christian Underpinning of their heritage, and must be able to identify and appreciate the religion qualities at the core of our mainstream America/Africa culture.
For most social studies teachers, teaching about religion conjures up thoughts of local Ministers and parent visiting the school to demand that the teacher stop or even resign. Many teachers and administrator argue that including religion in the curriculum is unconstitutional and point to two Famous Supreme Court decision (Engle vsvitale, 1962) and (Abingdon vs. Schempp,1963) as proof. These two cases, however, provide solid legal and intellectual support for teaching about religion in social studies classes. The key word in this issue is “about” in applying the establishment clause of first amendment while these decisions do prohibit Bible reading, school sponsored morning devotions, prayers and they do not prevent teachers from teaching about religion as a significant force in human affairs.
Statement of the Problem
Upper Basic School curriculum is designed as a prerequisite for Junior Secondary school curriculum. This is the reason in most cases there is a direct linkage between the subject or topics in the Upper Basic class and subject or topic in Junior Secondary School. Thus, in most cases students see the beginning of the Junior Secondary school (especially Senior Secondary School one (S.S.S1) as a continuation of Upper Basic class or school because there will always be components of upper basic school subject or topic in Junior secondary subject or topics.
More so, several researches have been carried out over time to look at the adequacy of the Junior Secondary School subjects. For instance; Nnadozie (1986) and Mansary (1990) carried out a study on performance in Geography and History of students with and without social studies background in the lower form of secondary. They observed that the knowledge of social studies can affect the performance of students in those two subject. Olutokun (2002) examined teacher evaluation of Geography components of Junior Secondary School social studies curriculum. He observed that the component of Geography in social studies was adequate. Adegboye (2002) studies teachers’ assessment of Economics components of Junior Secondary School social studies. He also submitted that the components of Economics in social studies were adequate.
However, the present study investigate in introduction of religion and National Value of Upper Basic junior Secondary School in Ibadan metropolis with a view to see whether the components of this curriculum is adequate or not,This is the gap the present study attempt to fill.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this research work is to find out the introduction of Religion and National values in Upper Basic Education.
The specific purpose of this study included the following to
1. Ascertain the level of awareness of the teachers and other major stakeholders in implementing the Revised 9-year BEC
2. Ascertain how well equipped the teachers are in implementer the revised 9-year BEC
3. Identify ways of improving the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC
Scope of Study
However, it covered all the Upper Basic Schools in some selected Secondary school in Ibadan metropolis, Furthermore, total numbers of sample of one hundred are twenty-five teachers from each schools of which Ten male teachers (10) Ten female teachers (10) three students teacher (3) and two coppers (2) i.e Ten male, Ten female, three students teachers and two coppers were selected from schools.
Questionnaire assessment was conducted as an instrument to elicit necessary information from the concerned teachers. The data was personally collected by the researcher and the result were analysed using frequently count and percentage in the course of answering research questions raised in the study respectively.
Operational Definition of Terms
Public School Teacher:- Are those people whose job is to teach or impact knowledge to a studentin a government school of the state.
Upper Basic School:- Is the Junior Section of Secondary Schools in Nigeria i.e level Immediately after primary school.
National Value:- Is an important and lasting believe or idea shared by the member of a culture about what is good or bad and desirable or undesirable
Religion:- Is the set of beliefs feelings, dogmas and practices that define the relations between human being and sacred or divinity.
Curriculum:- Is the aggregate of courses given in a school colleges or university.
Based on the purpose of the study. The following research question were raised
1. What is the level of awareness of the teachers and other major stakeholder in implementing the curriculum
2. How well prepared in the use of revised 9-year BEC and the TGs are teachers in implementing the revised 9 years BEC
3. To what extent is the availability of the 9-year BEC at the TG?
4. What are the difficulties encountered by teacher, in implementer the revised year BEC?
5. What actions are to be taken to improve the implementation of the curriculum and make it more effective.
Significance of the Study
Generally, monitoring of the implementation of the revised 9-year BEC is essential among others to stakeholders in.
1. Ensuring full compliance to the implementation plan.
2. Ascertain the availability the 9-year BEC and TGs
3. Remedying weakness observed in curriculum implementation
4. Providing information on the quality of human resources available for revised Basic Education curriculum (BEC) implementation
5. Providing information on the quality and gauntly of material resources available for implementation of the (BEC)
Deriving from the aim of this research, this study seek to use these statistical tools toinvestigate the acceptability otherwise of these hypothesis that
1. The differences between the religion and national values partly resulted into goal andobjective of the two subjects
2 . There is close relationship between religion and National values
3. There are no competent teachers who can handle religion and National values.
4. There are no enough material to facilitate the teaching and learning of the two subjects
5. The expert in curriculum are not given free hand in formulation of curriculum..