RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRINCIPALS’ FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND TEACHERS’ TASK PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ONITSHA EDUCATION ZONE
This study investigated the relationship between
’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. Guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses. Two questionnaires-How principals provide a fund questionnaire (HPPFQ) and the principals’ rate on the level of teachers’ task performance questionnaire (PRLTPQ) was used to collect the data. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to select a sample of 495 respondents. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to answer the research questions, while a t-test was used to test the hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. The major finding revealed that the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance, the discipline of students and involvement in co-curricular activities in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone could be described high and positive. The conclusion was that there was a significant relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in Onitsha Education Zone. Recommendations included the organization of regular seminars and workshops for both principals and teachers in order to improve financial management strategies of principals’ and boast teachers’ task performance.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The present economic crisis which has affected the Nigerian nation has been biting so hard that the various social services such as education which the government used to provide has been adversely affected. Public attention has been drawn by the school administrators to the inadequate funding in public schools in this country. Both government and the general public have always responded in different ways to the financial crisis in Nigeria by granting aid or giving more financial support to schools. It introduced education task fund (ETF) to help to provide financial needs both for the student and teachers.
Ezeocah (1985) states that for any venture to function, it must be financially viable. Finance is needed for any business organization to succeed. Prudent management of the financial resources of an organization is vital to the achievement of organization goals. Judicious management of educational finance is necessary just like any business that needs finance.
Financial management is the raising and administering of funds. It deals with how to plan, programme, budget for, secure and maintain both material and financial resources in order to attain the institutions objective. It is an obvious fact that no institution can survive or carry out its functions effectively and efficiently without utilizing properly its financial resources. According to Pandy (1979), financial management is considered a vital and integral part of the overall management. In this broad view, the central issue of financial policy is the “wise utilization of funds”.
Adequate financial management strategies bring about job satisfaction which according to Ndu, Ocho and Okeke (1997) has to do with a high level of emotional stability of an individual in his job such that his morale is also high and consequently he aspires to do more for the organization goals. This implies that the more teachers are rewarded, the more likely they are to work hard. The greater the extent in which an employee’s needs are satisfied in his job, the greater the extent to which he will response, presumably with gratitude or loyalty and effective productivity on that job.
Every nation would want to give her citizens the best of education she can afford within the limits of her resources, since education is regarded as a prime instrument for social, economic, technological and moral dynamism. Consequently, the federal government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument per excellent for effecting national development. Infant education is so expensive now that the government finds it difficult to finance it alone. The government now encourages the local communities, individuals, companies and others to assist in financing education. Parents deny themselves a lot of things to keep their children in the school. With the help of government and these groups of people, substantial amount of money is raised for the school use. The amount provided is often not enough.
Despite these efforts, one of the most serious problems facing the educational institutions today remains that of ineffective funds management strategies. Teachers find it extremely difficult to achieve educational goals, to provide services for which schools are set up these days. The problem could be brought about by inadequacy of funds. It is obvious that if the funds were adequate, enough instructional materials will be provided that will induce teachers to positive actions. At the same time, if the funds are grossly mismanaged, teachers will not fulfill their obligations to the schools. Principals therefore are required to use what resources, particularly subvention they have to motivate teachers so as to get what is wanted in this era of self-reliance. To ensure maximum task performance of teachers, principals’ must motivate teachers by providing them with instructional and their material needs
Task performance in this study implies work or job
performance. It is also the responsibilities or obligations teacher have to fulfill. Whawo (1995) enumerates task performance of teachers to include admission of students, classification, registration, student’s welfare services, teaching, and evaluation of class work, reports to parents and guardians, co-curricular activities and issues of students discipline. Ogunna (1992) writes that the material needs of the workers can be satisfied through adequate and regular payment of salaries and fringe benefits. Workers should be adequately remunerated for their efforts in order to secure their commitment and dedication to their task.
Nigeria’s economy is so bad (continuous inflation and devaluation of naira) that government’s allocation to education is not equivalent to school requirements. Schools are expected to maintain existing services, pay staff salaries and allowances, purchase instructional materials and meet other recurrent expenditure in order to motivate teachers to carry out their task effectively and effectively. Whawo (1995) opines that teachers must be motivated with adequate compensation. The zeal and enthusiasm in teachers should be sustained by providing them with enough benefits not minding their locations, gender and teaching experience.
This study thereby aims at identifying the relationship that between secondary school principals’ financial (subvention) management strategies and teachers’ task performance.
Statement of Problem
Principals’ as administrators of schools are expected to provide the required instructional materials that would influence the teachers to perform their task to a reasonable standard.
Teachers on the other hand are expected to be committed to their task performance to achieve the goals and objectives of the schools. Whawo (1995) stresses that the major task of educational
administrators is to utilize all available resources in an effort to achieve the objective for which schools are established. Unfortunately, principals mismanage the grants given to schools in the name of subvention to boost their financial resources. As a result teachers manifest signs of low job satisfaction, lack of sense of accomplishment, physical breakdown, unhappiness as well as various vices (Amoo and Adenle, 2003). Since instructional materials cannot be provided by principals, teachers exhibit laxity and truancy in their jobs. Many of them go to classes to teach at their own will, no longer care for the discipline of students, show less concern in extra curricular activities, etc.
The consequences of effective financial management strategies by principals on teachers’ task performance remain under researched. Is effective financial management strategies related to teachers’ teaching performance? How does financial management relate to discipline of students by teachers and teachers involvement in extra curricular activities? These problems present the problem of this study
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. Specifically the study investigates:
1. The relationship between principles’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance.
2. The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students.
3. The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-curricular
Significance of the Study
Maslow (1954) has implicated the role of motivation on the attainment of educational goals when Maslow postulated a theory of hierarch of human needs states that, it is only when a man gets all his needs that he can be satisfied. This theory can be applied in this study, teachers need to be motivated to perform optimally. This study will therefore be significant in the sense that it will find out the relationship between effective financial management and teachers task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. The study will be beneficial to teachers because it will reveal to them those things that will be provided for them to be motivated and bring out their best.
Principals on their own will benefit from the study in that it will throw light on factors that may pose problems in financial management and as a factors that impedes teachers task performance.
Also, both government and public would see the need through the findings of the study for more financial grants to schools, monitor the usage to minimize mismanagement by principals. The study will help the government to know that delay in payment of teachers salaries contributes to their inefficiency.
In addition, this study will help students to contribute money among themselves to provide some instructional materials to the schools and draw the attention of their rich relations to help provide some of the materials needed in the schools. This will motivate their teachers to perform better. Finally, the findings will be of good help or contribution to research findings the relationship between financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance, on the other hand it will be of immense benefit to the researchers in the field.
Scope of the Study
This study covered all state government secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. The content was limited to the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance. Financial management concentrates on government grants to education. Teachers’ task performance was investigated in terms of teaching performance, discipline of students and involvement in co-curricular activities.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. Is there a relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance?
2. What is the nature of the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students?
3. To what extent does a relationship exist between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-curricular activities?
The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance
1. The relationship between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance is not significant.
2. school location is not a significant factor in the relationship between the respondents’ mean ratings of the principals financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of
3. There is no significant relationship between the mean ratings of male and female respondents on principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-