This study focused on hotel management perception of HND and  certificate holders  (A Case Study Of Selected Hotels In Lagos, Nigeria). The study examined the existing disparity between polytechnic and university education and their effects. Findings in this study indicated that Nigerian respect certificates and people have more respect for university graduates than HND graduates.

Also, this study shows that type of certificate do not have any impact on the job performance of civil servant and finally this study shows that B.Sc. holders get more pay for their work than HND holders. The study recommends that governments at different levels and other stakeholders involved in this study should find a way to make graduates from different institutions of higher learning to receive equal treatments anywhere in Nigeria, thereby enhancing productivity in any organization they work with.



1.1   Background to the study

Polytechnics and Universities are regarded as the highest levels of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The Polytechnics awards National Diploma (HND) and Higher National Diploma (HND) while the Universities awards Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate degrees along with professional diplomas of the appropriate field of study such as science, arts, engineering, etc. Both Polytechnics and Universities by way of the curriculum are designed to focus on different levels of manpower training and development (Asibeluo, 2015). This delineation of manpower development and purpose had created a systemic deficiency in the overall life of the Polytechnic education and its products as well as certificates, (HND). The Polytechnics graduates are seen as Diploma holders, while University graduates are seen and called degree holders (Asibeluo, 2015).  Until recently entry qualification requirements into Polytechnic were made to be lower than those of the universities, making the Polytechnic appear lower than the Universities. Polytechnics are designed majorly for technical education. Technical Education is defined as that aspect of education, which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic and scientific knowledge (Obimah, 2007). UNESCO (1978), as cited by Ekpenyong (2001), defines Technical Education as education designed at upper secondary and lower tertiary levels to produce middle-level personnel or technician, middle management technologist, etc. and the university prepare engineers and technologists for higher-level management positions”. Obimah (2007) asserted that the general public regards technical education as somewhat inferior to other types of education due to the fact that course structure and contents in some of our technical institutions rely mainly on a model based on foreign technical environments (Obimah, 2007).

According to Toby (2000), as cited by Imonigie and Omozuawo (2007), technical education is important to the Nation as a whole because it contributes to our national economic welfare, social mobility, and national security.

1.2    Statement of problems

 The continued misconception that the university degree is somewhat better, more prestigious, and generally more acceptable than the polytechnic diploma has become a major talking point over the years. Many employers today show a preference for degree holders above HND holders. Some others consider employing HND certificate holders because they intend to offer a less attractive salary package compared to their counterparts that possess a university degree.

Likewise, some companies prefer the evaluation of certificates above other necessities. They believe degree holders are well trained and recognized than HND holders in the labor market, thereby contributing to the existing certificate dichotomy.

Another major problem is the recruitment criteria for certain positions. Many employers of labor have a policy of restricting executive and managerial positions to certain certificate holders, regardless of the skills such individuals possess. They prefer to start off with HND certificate holders with middle-level positions even if they have the needed skills and are qualified for top positions. This affects the career growth of some HND holders in some organizations as the company’s policy restricts them from getting to some top positions.

In as much as employees’ performance level is key to the success of any company, a number of employers believe that degree holders will out-perform their HND counterparts as they are better trained in higher institutions. This doesn’t seem to be true as HND holders are well trained as much as their counterparts who earned university degrees. This is the more reason why the level of performance should be measured while on the job and not before.

It was for this reason that this study aim at examining hotel management perception of HND and B.Sc Certificate holders with a view to finding out if this difference exists and if yes, why they exist and how relevant the differences are to individual performance in the labor market.

1.3    Objective of the Study

This study aim is to examine hotel management perception of HND and B.Sc  certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State. The following are the objectives:

1.     To ascertain management preference for HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State.

2.     To evaluate management recruitment criteria into positions in selected hotels in Lagos State.

3.     To examine the career growth opportunities for both HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State

4.     To find out management perception of the level of performance between HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State

1.4   Research Questions

This study is guided by the following research questions.

1.     What is the preference for HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State?

2.     What are the recruitment criteria for positions in selected hotels in Lagos State?

3.     Are there career growth opportunities for both HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State?

4.     What is the level of performance between HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State?

1.5   Research Hypothesis

H01: There is no preference for HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State

H02: There is no restriction in recruitment criteria into positions in selected hotels in Lagos State

H03: There are no career growth opportunities for both HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State

H04: There is no significant difference between the level of performance of HND and Bachelor certificate holders in selected hotels in Lagos State

1.6   Significance of the Study

This study will be an eye-opener for graduates of different institutions in Nigeria regarding the disparities that exist between HND and B.Sc. or B.Certificate holders in the Nigerian Labour market.  The study will help in enlightening both undergraduates and graduates as regard their career growth path in hotel management. It will also help them to gain an insight into management’s perception of their earnerd certificate.

It is hoped that the study will go a long way in encouraging employers across different fields to embrace graduates from different higher institutions of learning to receive equal treatments in preference, recruitment, and career growth opportunities.

The research is expected to be of immense benefit not only to hotel management but also to all government parastatals, agencies, ministries, departments, local government councils, institutions, private sectors, individuals, and the general public, thereby encouraging them to abolish the certificate dichotomy practices that currently exist between HND and University degree holders in their organization.

Lastly, the study will provide a basis for further research by other researchers who will carry out a similar study or make further research.

1.7    Scope of the Study

The current study will examine the Hotel management perception of HND and B.Sc certificate holders. It will be limited to selected hotels in Lagos mainland and Lagos Island in Lagos State. The study will only focus on management perception with a view of getting the required information from both the hotel staff and managers.

1.8   Definition of Terms                  

Management: The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.

Perception: The way in which something is regarded, understood or interpreted.

Bachelor of Science (B.Sc): This an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.

HND (Higher National Diploma). This is a work-related course provided by higher and further education colleges in Nigeria and some other countries around the world. A full-time HND takes two years to complete, or three to four years part-time.

Certificate holder: A person or that is awarded a certificate for completing a course of study.

Hotel management: This is a system involving the management of all things related to the hotel business.



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