This study investigated on pupil’s perception of the influence of Parental Involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome in Abeokuta Metropolis’. Descriptive research of survey method was used for the study. Simple random Sampling techniques was used to select 10 schools and 300 respondents. Data was collected   using a structured questionnaire, validated by lecturers in the department of Primary Education studies and tested for reliability using split –half   method and the reliability coefficient of 0.82 was established. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, Percentage, mean and standard Deviation. Result indicated that Pupils’ perception of parental involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome is positive. Based on this, the study recommended that the school personnel, members of the families and communities should work on collaboration to provide quality assistance to aid pupils’ learning and development. 


Title page i

Certificate ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv-v

Abstract vi

Table content vii-viii


1.1Background of the Study 1-3

1.2 State of the Problem 3-4

1.3 Research Questions 4-5

1.4Purpose of the Study 5

1.5 Significance of the Study 5

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 5

1.7 Definition of Terms 5-6


2.0 Introduction 7

2.1Theoretical Background of the Study 8-10

2.2Parental Involvement in Children’s Education10-12

2.3 Diversityin Parental  Involvement 12-14

2.4Benefits of Parental Involvement in Children Education 14-15

2.5 Importance of Basic Science in Primary Education 15-18

2.6 Factors that Encourage or Inhibit Parents’ Involvement  in

Children Education18-22

2.7 Academic Performance and Parental Involvement in Children Education       22

2.8 The Influence of Home Background on the Academic Performance of Pupils 22-24 

2.9 Parents’ Gender and Parental Involvement in Children Education     24-28

2.10 Type of School and Parental Involvement in Children Education 28-29

2.11 Importance of Parental Involvement in the Children’s Homework 29-30

2.12 Empirical Literature Review 30-33

2.13 Conceptual Framework  of  the Study 33-34

2.14 Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed 34-35


3.0 Introduction 36

3.1 Research Design 36

3.2 Population of the Study 36

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 36-37

3.4 Research Instruments 37

3.5Validity  Instruments38

3.6 Reliability of the Instruments 38

3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 38

3.8 Method of Data Analysis 38


4.1 Demographic Information of Participants 39-42

4.2 Answers to the Research Questions 42-39

4.3 Summary of Findings 49-50

4.4 Discussion of Findings 50-51


5.1 Summary of Findings 52

5.2 Conclusion 52-53

5.3 Recommendations 53-54


Appendix 61-63



1.1 Background to the Study 

Education is essential for the development of society. The more educated the people of a society are, the more civilized and well-disciplined the society might be. Mainly, family has responsibility to socialize children for making them productive members of society. The more the parents involve in the process of imparting education to their children, the more the children might excel in their academic career and to become the productive and responsible members of society.  It has been assumed that academic achievement of pupils may not only depend on the quality of schools and the teachers, rather the extent of parental involvement has vital role to play in academic achievement of their kids.Learning begins at home through interaction with one’s family. (Bryan, 2005).

Parental involvement in a pupil’s education along with environmental and economic factors may affect childdevelopment in areas such as cognition, language, and social skills. Numerous studies in this area havedemonstrated the importance of family interaction and involvement in the years prior to entering school(Hill, 2001; Wynn, 2002). Research findings have also shown that a continued effort of parentalinvolvement throughout the child’s education can improve academic achievement (Driessen, Smit&Sleegers,2005; Fan, 2001; Hong & Ho, 2005). Academic failure has been linked with risk behaviours and negativeoutcomes such as; substance abuse, delinquency, and emotional and behavioural problems (Annunziata, Houge,Faw, &Liddle, 2006).

Pupils’ academic achievement and educational attainment have been studied withindifferent theoretical explanations. Many of them have a focus on parents’ education,occupation or home background (like; family income, language of the home,

activities of the family and work methods), while other studies looked at it from the

teachers’ variables (such as teacher’s age, experience, education, gender, etc), school

variables (such as environment, structures, buildings, location, etc), pupils’ variables

(such as attitude, self-concept, self-esteem, study habit, interest etc) and parents’

support (such as achievement motivation of wards, parental attitudes towards

education, the aspiration of parents etc). (Liddle, 2006).

Owen and Philip (2013) show that parents have more contribution to pupil’s performance, but the participation level defers among rural area, boarding school and urban. Also, Tableman (2004) pointed out that when parents are enabled to become effective partners in their child’s education, performance in schools where children are failing improves dramatically. This shows the importance of parental involvement in changing academic performance inpupils. Harrison and Hara (2010) also concluded in a research done in NorthCarolina that family and community involvement can have a powerful and positiveimpact on pupil outcomes. Those studies agreed to some extent that parents’participation has a positive impact on learners.

The parent’s financial status and education do have an important influence on the

personality of the child. Educated parents can interpret the educational demands and

their children’s aptitude. They can assist their children in their early education which

bears on their proficiency in their relative field of cognition. Belonging to strong

financial background, parents can provide the latest technologies and facilities in a

best possible way to enhance educational capability of their children. Parental education and socioeconomic factors are of critical importance in effecting pupils’ educational achievements as well. They are like backbone in providing financial and mental confidence to pupils. The explicit differences can be noted between pupils who belong to different families with different financial status and different parental educational level. Key (2007) argued that education is a primaryneed in this era of globalization so is a very important tool in the day to day life. Education not only gives insight, it also grooms the personality, inculcates moral values, add knowledge and gives skill. Education is necessary owing to the atmosphere of competition. In every field highly qualified people are needed. As (Azhar et al, 2013) cited in Battle and Lewis states that; “In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is seen as a first step for every human activity. It plays a critical part in the evolution of human capital and is related to anindividual’s well-being and opportunities for more honest living.”

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

Teachers and parents as the two key stakeholders in the overall development of childrenneed to be aware of the importance of parental involvement in children's learning. Therefore, itrequires a two-way communication to create support for children's learning in and out of school.Teachers need to have awareness of the knowledge children bring to the class from home andother settings and the support they get out of school. However, in Nigeria context,communication on parental role in learning and teachers' involvement of parent is very limited.Given the low literacy rate (39 % for men and 14 % for women) in Nigeria, parents whothemselves are not highly educated or are non-literate need clear and sustained communicationand guidance on how to support their children's education. Teachers also need to know whatparents do and can do, in their capacity and within their intellectual and material resources tosupport their children's learning. Schools, particularly teachers, may not have clear strategies forcommunicating with parents on a regular basis and may underestimate their role in motivatingand reinforcing students’ learning. Views, perceptions and attitudes of teachers may impact howeffectively parents can get and stay involved in their children’s education. 

1.3 Research Questions 

i. What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through provision of materials and emotional supports on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

ii. What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through home discussion on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

iii. What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through home supervision on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

iv. What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through school communication on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

v. What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through school participation on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

1.4 Purpose of the Study 

The purpose of this study is to investigate the pupil’s perception of the influence of parental involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome in Abeokuta Metropolis.

1.5 Significance of the Study 

The study is important, especially to parents because the findings will shed more

light on the need for parents to be more involved in children’s learning.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 

The study focused on pupil’s perception of the influence of parental involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome. The study delimited itself to some selected 10 primary schools in Abeokuta both to public and private primary schools, involving

pupils. The study employed quantitative approach. In this respect, the study findings

and conclusions are delimited to the subject area. The result and conclusion are

limited to situation in Abeokuta Metropolis.

1.7 Definition of Terms 

Parental Involvement: Parental involvement can be defined in different ways. In this study, parental involvement includes parents' at-home interest, support and engagement such as communication about the expectations parents have from their children, support with the studies and homework, providing advice and encouragement and communicating with the teachers and with the children about their school work. Parents’ involvement encompasses a range of actions and beliefs concerning sending a child to school and supporting the child's out-of-school learning through advocating on behalf of the child, communicating with the school staff and maintaining a presence in the school.

Pupils’ Perceptions:  Pupils Perceptions is a simple tool that help pupils to understand possible barriers to learning for individual pupils and particular groups, and the resultant inhibiting of progress.




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