AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING BUSINESS EDUCATION COURSES
The study examines the availability and level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. The survey design was adopted in the study. A population of 240 respondents was used in the study. A sample of 180 respondents comprising business education students was selected using the simple random sampling technique. The technique of Mean and frequencies were employed in data analysis. The findings of the study indicate interactive ICT facilities are grossly lacking for teaching and learning of business education courses. Also, it was revealed in the study that interactive ICT is not utilized for teaching business education courses. Noninteractive ICT devices were also revealed to be lacking for the teaching business education courses and were thereby rarely utilized in business education implementations. From the findings of the study, it was recommended that Government and other relevant stakeholders in education should provide adequate ICT resources for the teaching of business education courses in tertiary institutions. This will enable teachers to effectively utilize them in the classroom and at the same time help to equip students with appropriate ICT skills needed for effective functioning in the modern electronic age, In-service training program such as seminars, on-the-job retraining and retraining programs, workshops on ICT resources utilization should be mounted on a regular basis for serving business educators in tertiary institutions and finally, ICT agencies should assist with the free distribution of ICT resources to tertiary institutions as their corporate social responsibility to communities. Free donation of ICT equipment will help communities of practice to utilize them since findings show that non-utilization is associated with the non-availability of ICT resources.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study
Teaching and learning are inseparable concepts with learning playing more of a judgmental role in teaching. It is believed that “unless the child learns the teacher has not taught”. Though teaching and learning are intimately linked processes and are interdependent as well as interwoven, teaching is a social phenomenon, while learning is a psychological phenomenon. It is the teaching which generally results in learning but there can be learning without teaching. Teachers in the recent trend of teaching and learning are therefore seen as facilitators or guides, and I believe this can better be enhanced through the utilization of ICT facilities.
The nub of the teaching-learning process lies at the moment by moment relationship between the willing leaner and the competent co-teacher. Rao (2008) quoted Burton (2001) who argues that teaching can be made effective by relating it to learning; teaching objectives can be identified in behavioral terms and appropriate learning situations may be created to realise these objectives. The appropriate teaching condition or structures may be generated for effective learning; the effective teaching aids may be selected for creating strategies and tactics may be selected to achieve the optimal object of learning; the concept of the relationship of teaching and learning will be an aid to understand the nature of teaching and thereby, teaching theories may be evolved. The knowledge of the relationship will equally be helpful for teaching to produce effective Business Education teachers.
ICT has been acknowledged globally as one of the greatest techniques infused into the teaching-learning process. It is used in the context of this research work to imply a diverse set of electronic technologies, technological tools, and resources used to communicate, disseminate, store and manage information in the course of teaching and learning. ICT includes computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies, and telephony (Adoni and Kpangbam, 2010; Chukwudi and Ejita, 2008). The impact of ICT on learning is the vision that it enables learning anywhere, any time, and anyhow. ICTs are utilized during academic activities especially by lecturers and students (Usang, Azubuike, and Umoren, 2007). Anissimov (2009); Bless and Truth (2009) and Bliss (2009) agrees with this view but further noted that there is variation in the level of usage of ICT in tertiary institutions among countries.
The emergence of information and communication technology (ICT) has totally revolutionized the way we access, process, store, retrieve and disseminate within organizations or across the globe according to Miller and Akume (2009).
Information and communication technology refers to a systematic process of gathering, processing, storing, sending, and retrieving information through the print, broadcast, computing, and telecommunications media (Onwuagboke, 2009). Similarly, Achuonye (2002) sees information and communication technology as the collection, storage, processing dissemination, and use of information. Information and communication technology has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills; motivate and engage students in learning; it also helps in relating school experiences to work practices, helps to create economic viability for workers; contributes to radical changes in school; strengthen teaching and provides opportunities for connection between the school and the world (Kirschner and Woperies, 2003).
Ogunsola (2005) sees ICT as an electronically based system of information transmission, reception, processing, and retrieval which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live, and the environment in which we live. Information and communication technology offers several opportunities in education, they can be used as a means of preparing the current generation of students for the future workplace, that is, providing tools for tomorrow's practices. This is underscored in the foreword written by Lemke .C. (1999) in the Milken exchange on education technology commissioned report. Lemke noted inter alia “ today’s students live in a global knowledge-based age, and they deserve teachers use of technology (ICTs) students can be given the opportunities of becoming a part of the knowledge age and skills imparted to the young people in an increasingly complex world.
Teachers will need to use ICTs in order to equip tomorrow’s employees and customers with the requisite competence and knowledge to use ICTs within their work (Davis & Tearle, 1999). ICT has impacted the quality and quantity of teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive, and engaging. ICT has simplified education through the application of electronic media, the internet, etc. Ndukwe (2006), emphasized that the production and introduction of calculators and computers in the education system worldwide has helped in simplifying teaching and learning in schools, thereby content, and it provide real opportunities for individualized instruction.
Business education is one of the courses taught in tertiary institution is that aspect of the total education programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to perform in the business world as producer or consumer of goods and services that business offer (Igboke, 2012). Azubuike (2013), noted that business education fall under creative, technical and vocational courses within the high institution programme. The course is aimed at equipping students with practical business skills which will enable them to participate meaningfully in production in future. As a practical course, it is intended to prepare student for the world of work; both as employees and as employers , oyebade (2008) and (chibuzor, 2012) and also stated that business education is an essential element of general education; this is because it is concerned with entrepreneurship development among the students. He further stated that, it is concerned with the act of imparting business orientation. Furthermore, Okoli (2010) noted that business education is an important part of the general education which emphasizes on the acquisition of skills and competencies for use in offices and business related occupation. Similarly, Nwazi (2010) describes business education as encompassing education for office occupation, business teaching, business administration and economic understanding. In all, Abdulkadir (2011) opines that one remarkable important characteristic of business education programme is that, its products can function independently as self-Employed and Employers of labour. To this end, the tenet of business education embraces basic education for teaching career, entrepreneurship, business understanding, office management and vocational practices.
Azubuike (2013), enumerated the following as the objectives of business education at all levels of education;
- To develop basic skills for personal use in the future
- To prepare students for further training in business education.
- To provide the needed background for teaching business courses.
- To develop basic skills in office occupation.
- To relate the knowledge and skills acquired to national development.
- To acquire the basic knowledge and skills of business education.
- To provide orientation and basic skills with which start a life of work for those who may not undergo further training.
Statement of the Problem
Over the years there has been generally poor performance in business education courses, this is not only applicable in secondary examinations where business education subjects are taught but also in university precisely under business education most students who enroll in the business education department do not graduate successfully with their mate.
Unfortunately, in Ebonyi State University in the Department of Business Education, there are little or no ICT tools for teaching and learning in various classrooms. teaching and learning method in the class rooms in the department of business education still adopt the old traditional method of teaching, where the teacher acts at the repertoire of knowledge while the student is busy coping with what is said and expected to vomit them verbatim during the examination. It is worrisome because this has led to the massive failure in examinations as the students are rarely grounded in their learning but are mainly subjected to mere memorization of the topics taught.
The present study contributes to the literature on the use of ICT in education by examining the availability and level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to determine the availability and the level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses at Ebonyi State University. The specific objectives are
1. To ascertain the availability of interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University.
2. To ascertain the level of utilization of interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.
3. To determine the availability of non-interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education in Ebonyi state university.
4. To determine the level of utilization of non- interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.
Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to the students, teachers, education shake holders, the government philanthropists.
Information and communication technology is of great importance to teachers and students of business education in Ebonyi State University; this is because, from this research, they will able to ascertain the importance of information and communication in teaching and learning.
Secondly, this work will be of great importance to educational stakeholders. This is because from the research they will be able to know the plight of the student and therefore work out modalities to solve the problems.
Thirdly, this work will be of great importance to the government through the ministry of education they would be able to ascertain the course of the poor performance of the student of business education and work out modalities to solve the problems.
Furthermore, the work will be of great importance to the philanthropists in the area, this is because, from the work, they will be able to identify problems of students in studying business education. This will encourage them to donate information and communication technology tools that will be used in teaching and learning in the area.
Finally, the findings would be useful to curriculum planners. Curriculum planners who would wish to resolve the issue of the availability and utilization of ICT instructional materials may have caused them to know the true situation and properly restructure the business education programme curriculum to take care of inadequacies. Curriculum planners would be more objective when the findings are taken to consideration.
The following research question’s guided the study:
1. To what extent are interactive ICT available for teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University?
2. To what extent are interactive ICT utilized in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University?
3. To what extent are noninteractive ICT available for teaching business education courses at Ebonyi State University?
4. To what extent are noninteractive ICT utilized in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University?.