THE IMPACTS OF MICROTEACHING ON STUDENT TEACHERS PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS).
Background to the Study
Education is the bedrock of any national development either in the developed, developing or under-developed nation. Education is the instrument for individual, societal, national and international growth and development. It prepares an individual for the total development from birth through a life time for useful and happy membership of the society he belongs to. Education makes an individual to become an asset and not a liability to the society. The individual develops physically, mentally, socially, emotionally and spiritually from birth throughout a life time. Onocha (2013) claimed that, all human societies need the development of prerequisite skills, knowledge and experience for their growth and preservation. This is because education develops human resources of the nation. For an individual to develop physically, socially, morally, intellectually and becomes an asset or a useful member of his society, he needs education.
Aggarwal (2008) considered education as the ‘third eye’ which gives a man an insight into all affairs and teaches him how to act. Education nourishes, directs, comforts and makes an individual to be more cultured. With education, a man is able to realize the true value of life. An uneducated person is therefore considered blind. In the same vein, Ololube (2007) described education as an essential service that must be monitored, scrutinized and constantly evaluated. Education increases a man’s intelligence, power and efficiency. A child’s best is drawn but through education. This is because education makes him to be morally sound, physically strong, spiritually upright, culturally refined, emotionally stable, and intelligently self-sufficient. In fact, through education, a man develops a well-balanced personality. As education develops individual, the outcome is national development. Patel and Mohasina (2011) argued that education is the most important invention of mankind. Man invents tools, machines, crafts, medicine and language through education. Without education, man would have been living just like an animal.
Through the process of learning, a society’s values, habits, skills, knowledge, craft, language and trade are transmitted from one generation to another. Kumar (2008), Fayaz (2011) and Saxena and Khajanchee (2012) opined that a nation’s economic prosperity and her quality depend on the development of her human resources or manpower. To develop manpower resources means to produce competent human resources. The significant fact in the development of manpower resources refers to the competences and level on which these competences are imparted which depend largely on those who develop these competencies.
The people that impart knowledge are referred to as teachers. The teacher is someone that is trained and certificated to teach. He is regarded as the key player in the entire educational process, the mirror in the society and the father of knowledge. He is the converter of raw materials to finished products through a systematic procedure in the school which is considered as a human factory. According to Okoye (2007), a teacher does these in various capacities such as educator, adviser, instructor, lecturer, counselor, guidance, researcher, innovator and leader. Onocha (2013) observed that teachers are a critical factor in delivering qualitative education. Therefore, for this purpose, there is need for highly competent teachers for imparting those competences. As a result, teachers imparting the competences should have the capability to perform their tasks efficiently. In other to do this, teachers need to acquire requisite competencies themselves.
The term Student Teaching Practice (STP) is defined differently by many educationists. A few of these definitions are, however, worthy of note. Student Teaching Practice is a pre-service professional preparation for interested persons, aspiring to become teachers with a credible vision for sustainable human development (Oyekan, 2000). According to Salawu and Adeoye (2002), Student Teaching Practice is a practical teaching activity by which the student -teachers are given an opportunity in actual school situation to demonstrate and improve training in pedagogical skill over a period of time. Also, Student Teaching Practice is a kind of apprenticeship stage during which the students are sent out to school to gain practical and professional experience by translating all the educational theories they have acquired or learnt during training into practice (NOUN, 2010).
This conceptualization and that of Adeoye (2002) are modified as: “a practical teaching activity by which the student-teacher (under the supervision of a teacher trainer) is given opportunity in actual school situation within a given period of time to demonstrate, gain practical knowledge and professional experience by translating educational theories into practice”. Whatever definition is given to STP, the most important thing is that it is a professional exercise which is focused on helping the student-teacher to bridge the gap between theory and practice in education.
Teaching practice is an important prequalification requirement that affords the teachers-in training the opportunity to put into practice what they have learnt in theory. It is like the laboratory for practical demonstration. According to Taneja (2000), teaching practice is usually interchanged with such words as practice teaching, field studies, infield experience, and internship, among others. The scope of teaching practice, according to Idowu (2000), is not limited to the cognitive domain; it also covers the affective and psychomotor domains. He further stressed that the responsibilities of student-teachers are not limited to classroom teaching (cognitive domain). They also include the promotion of the psycho-social development and growth of their pupils.
Microteaching is a technique which is used to train student teachers in a minimized and restricted or artificial teaching environment (Yasemin, Kaya and Bahceci, 2012). The idea of micro teaching was developed at Stanford University, California in 1963. It was established to provide a reliable training environment where trainees could practice before taking up actual classroom teaching. Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin introduced micro teaching in 1999 to provide a safe setting for the acquisition of techniques and strategies in teaching. The course (micro teaching) is regarded as a pre-requisite to teaching practice. Students are required to do micro teaching practicum in the second semester of their two hundred levels. Micro teaching was introduced in teachers training program whereby students teach classes made up of members of their own student group. The exercise is between five to twenty minutes, depending on the skill of practice. One skill is emphasized at a time and the content is limited. The student’s teachers receive constructive criticism from the supervisor and his mate as feedback. Supervisors are drawn from the entire department in the college. Each student is allowed for twenty minutes to demonstrate his/her teaching skill. They were always treated in a short time. In teacher training, microteaching is especially important in the application of theory to practice (Kuran, 2009).
Microteaching enables student teachers to perceive teachers’ behaviours extensively and observe each other’s performance through analyzing and reflecting on the experiences. Therefore, microteaching enables student teachers to be aware of their own shortcomings in the subject matter knowledge and enables them to develop their pedagogical content knowledge. It is when student teachers acquire the necessary teaching skills through microteaching that they are posted to the field for teaching practice. In view of the above, the study is set to examine the impact of micro teaching on students’ teaching practice performance.
Statement of the Problem
Students perform poorly in teaching practice. The situation seems worrisome as evident in various negative reports on Student Teaching Practice (STP) in Nigerian tertiary institutions. For example, The National University Commission (NUC) (2005) reported that over 80% of persons surveyed felt that Education graduates produced in the last ten (10 years) have no strength (Okebukola, 2005). In fact, the impression one gets from the report is that these graduates have nothing to offer as teachers because they were even rated low in the few areas where they were said to be positive such as willingness to learn (11.6%); punctuality school (5.4%) and ability to discipline (8.0%). In addition, the study identified the following weaknesses: - inadequate exposure to teaching practice (lack of practical skills); poor classroom management and control; shallow subject – matter knowledge; poor computer skills; inability to communicate effectively in English; lack of professionalism; lack of self-reliant and entrepreneurial skills; and poor attitude to work.
Various efforts by the colleges of education and institute of education are geared towards improving this performance. Typical effort is the introduction of micro-teaching, resultant effect of micro-teaching on teaching practice is expected to give a positive correction. This research aim to examine the impact of micro teaching on students’ teaching practice performance in Ilorin Secondary schools.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to find out the impacts of Microteaching on Student Teachers’ performance in Kwara State Secondary Schools.
The study would specifically seek to:
1. Examine the impact of micro teaching on student teachers’ performances in teaching practice.
2. To examine student teachers’ perception of micro teaching during teaching practice.
3. To examine the student teachers’ experiences during micro teaching and its impact on student training.
4. To identify challenges student teachers’ experience during micro teaching.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the impact of microteaching in teaching practice?
2. What are the experiences of student teachers during microteaching and it impacts on students training?
3. How do student teachers perceive micro teaching during teaching practice?
4. What are the challenges student teachers experience using microteaching?
H01: There is no sig relationship between micro teaching and performance of student teachers in teaching practice.
H11: There is sig relationship between micro teaching and performance of student teachers in teaching practice Kwara state secondary schools.
H02: There is no sig relationship between the experiences of students in using micro teaching and student teachers performance in teaching practice in Kwara state secondary schools.
H12: There is sig relationship between the experiences of students in using micro teaching and student teachers performance in teaching practice in Kwara state secondary schools.
H03: There is no sig relationship between the perception of students in using micro teaching and student teachers performance in teaching practice in Kwara state secondary schools.
H13: There is sig relationship between the perception of students in using micro teaching and student teachers performance in teaching practice in Kwara state secondary schools
Scope of the Study
The scope for the study is limited to the effects of microteaching skills on student teachers’ performance in Secondary schools in Kwara state. The study will focus on student teachers’ and their supervisors in Ilorin Metropolis. The city is made up of three local government; Ilorin east, Ilorin west, Ilorin south. From this local government, the study will lay focus on Ilorin East local government because it has the highest number of schools and only public secondary schools would be assessed. Student teachers who are qualified for Teaching Practice will be drawn from college of education Ilorin with their supervisors to participate in this study.
Significance of the Study
The study will be of great importance to all education stakeholders and education generally in Nigerian society. The segments of the society that will benefit directly from the study are: student teachers, teacher educators, curriculum experts, decision makers in education and other stakeholders.
Student teachers who are the main target of the study and who are directly connected with the study will be afforded the opportunity to master all the skills inherent in teaching in a laboratory environment before actual classroom experience. It is also essential to investigate the impacts microteaching skills have on the performance of pre-service teachers so as to improve on the organization of microteaching in Nigerian Colleges of Education. Student teachers will be acquainted with the importance of microteaching and the roles of each skill in preparing professional, effective, reflective, visionary and vibrant teachers.
In addition, the teacher educators (lecturers) will benefit from the findings of the study. This is because detecting the impact microteaching skills on student teachers’ performance will improve the conduct, organization and evaluation of microteaching in Nigerian Schools of Education. The educators can use the findings of the study as an indispensable tool for creating rating scales for student teachers during practicum.
The following terms were operationally defined as follows:
Colleges of Education: are the higher institutions in Nigeria that is meant only for training teachers such as College of education Oro, College of education lafiagi
Impacts: refer to effects which microteaching skills may have on the performances of student teachers in teaching practice.
Microteaching practicum: refers to laboratory experience which student teachers undergo.
Micro-Teaching: - refers to a training technique in which student teachers has to teach a single concept using specified teaching skill to a small number of pupils in a short duration of time.
Student teachers: are those undergoing professional teachers’ training in colleges of education and undergoing teaching practice in Kwara State secondary schools.
Teaching practice: is the exercise which student teachers are exposed to for their practical training in mostly public primary and secondary schools in the country.
Training technique: the skills that are acquired by student teachers during training..