THE EFFECT OF CLASS-SIZE IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The large population of students in history class are enough for ineffectiveness of the learning and teaching of history in junior secondary school. Research was made in this exercise to investigate the effect of class-size in effective teaching and learning of history in some selected secondary schools in Shagamu Metropolis. Moreover, questionnaire was the instrument used to obtain the necessary information and data. The information and data collected was analyzed using simple percentage and results were presented in tables and pie-chart to consider the hypothesis raised. The research findings concluded that group method of teaching is the best method when teaching history in a large class-size and that the teacher’s behavior have roles to play in students achievement.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Research work appears to be making an increasing impact on everyday lives. In public discussion today the evidence of this fact was considered to be important. We are unlikely to acceptauthoritative statements without some explanations to prove the statement. Every profession requires its members to acquire certain specialized abilities and teaching is no exception.
Among the specialized abilities expected of the classroom teacher is to have some certain behaviours which promote both the learning of the subject (History) and the student’s attitude. Teacher’s classroom interaction can be analyzed in order to obtain information on how to be effective with regards to the teaching method from which to develop and control their behaviour in a continuingprogramme of self development. There is the need for using different methods in teaching different groups of students. For instance, in teaching History the teachers needs to have interaction session for his student and therefore in the class, demonstration method should be applied rather than lecture. However, the only way to find out the usefulness of the different methods is to observe their behaviour in different ability level in selection of methodology of teaching the teacher has to bear in his mind.
How should History be taught? What teaching methods would be suitable in the teaching of History? History in particular, what is the role of small group discussion; the class-room demonstration and audio-visual aid in teaching and learning of History. There are basically several methods of observing History teachers, two of these are interaction analysis and topological studies (step by step observation based on record). Its generally accepted that an application and understanding of education events are essentials to any analysis of educational process. Teacher should analyze their classroom interaction in order to obtain effective learning, especially their own actions during the process of teaching and learning.
Babajide, 2010 reveal that History teaching is suppose to be result oriented and students centred, and this can only be achieved when students are willing and the appropriate methods and resources in the students. Students by nature are curious; They need to be actively involved in the learning process in which they are continuously equipping, testing, special teaching and building their own personal construct and knowledge that is only by personalizing such knowledge that it becomes valid, meaningful and useful to them. In History, students need to actively construct their own personal awareness and meaning to substantiate the argument, Usman (2009) remarked that brain is not a passive consumer of information and to learn with understanding, a learner must actively construct meaning of what to be learned.
Despite the prime position, History occupies in our educational system and the efforts made by researchers to enhance performance, students’ performance on History in general are still low. Some of the reasons identified for this failure are laboratory inadequately, teachers attitude, examination malpractice, time constraint for conduction of practices, non-coverage of syllabus, class size, non-professionalism and environment. History practical in schools is aimed at giving the students the opportunity to gain meaningful learning, acquire appropriate skills and attitudes that enable them live and contribute to the development of society.
We often think that learning occurs in proportion to class-size; the smaller the class, the more students learn. However, while research shows that small classes provide more opportunities for feedback and discussion than large classes, as well as greater students satisfaction, it does not suggest that class size is necessarily a correlate of student learning. What counts is not the size of the class, but the quality of the teaching. Research suggests that the key to effective instruction and student learning, regardless of class size, is engaging student in active learning.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There are a lot of problems facing the teaching and learning of History in Secondary Schools but the researcher is concern about the large class size and it impact in teaching and learning of History in some selected secondary schools in Shagamu metropolitan of Ogun State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the research work was to find out the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning History in junior secondary school in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun state.
i. To find out the effect of large class size in teaching and learning of History.
ii. To evaluate how large class size has influenced academic performance of students in junior secondary school.
iii. To know between large class size and small class size which is effective for teaching and learning History.
iv. To know how convenient large class size is to the students learning History.
v. To know how convenient large class size is to the teachers teaching History.
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at finding out the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of History as a subject which need high level of concentration by the teacher and the students whenever the subject is to be taught. Large class size will not be too good for teaching and learning of History due to the fact that students are of different home or family background which make their character different from one another. Some students want to learn while others are not ready to know with large class size, the teacher may not how the capability to control the class but with small class size, no matter how the teachers can control such a class size. This study will be of significance to educators, curriculum planners and school management to know now to go about the problem of large class size.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the effect of large class sizes in teaching and learning of History?
ii. What is the relationship between large class size and academic performance of students in History?
iii. Is there convenience in learning History in a large class size.
iv. Is there any convenience in teaching History in a large class size?
v. Which is efficient and effective between large class size and small class in teaching and learning of History in junior secondary school.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work was limited to some selected secondary schools in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun State, where five (5) secondary schools were used for the study namely;
i. Remo Secondary Schools Shagamu.
ii. Soyindo Community High School, Shagamu..