School factors are the school human and physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of school factor on students’ academic performance in English language. This was also examined using the students. Research questions were generated for the study and hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study is a descriptive survey type. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of 100 respondents for the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study while the data were analysed using simple percentage. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Based on the result of the data analyzed, it was revealed that school factors have major effect on students’ academic performance. There exist a significance relationship between school factors and students’ academic performance in English language; there was a significant relationship between school factors and academic performance of both male and females students. Hence, it was recommended that the class size should be minimized to an average of ratio 1:35. School physical facilities and qualified teachers of English should be provided in schools for effective students learning.  


Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Abstract v

Table of Contents vi


Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 6

Purpose of the Study 7

Research Questions 7

Research Hypotheses 8

Significance of the Study 8

Scope of the Study 9

Operational Definition of Terms 10


Status of English Language in JSS Curriculum 11

Instructional, infrastructural materials and Students Academic Performance 13

Teachers of English and Students Academic Performance 17

Trends of students performance in English  JSSCE  Examination 21

Appraisal of Literature of Reviewed23


Research Design 24

Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques 25

Instrumentation 25

Procedure for Data collection 26

Data Analysis Techniques 26


Hypotheses Testing/Research question 27

Discussion of Findings 33


Discussion on Findings 34

Conclusion 36

Recommendations 37

Suggestions for Further Study 38






Background to the Study

Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined developmental strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources with which she is endowed. These resources include the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the furniture, the building and physical equipment and recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000). 

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2001). It has also been observed that adequate attention is now being paid to school plant planning throughout the world’s educational systems including Nigeria. Educational facilities such as school plant have been repeatedly found to have positive relationship with standard and quality of educational system (Ojedele, 2000). 

School factors, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc, are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).  Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance.

More so, school factors such as instructional spaces, infrastructural spaces and the teachers are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students. 

According to Williams, Persaud and Turner (2008), and Marsden (2005), safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), school facilities (accessories) are significantly related to students’ academic performance in elementary schools. The researchers also affirmed that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students` academic performance.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students and the learning process. Poor lightening, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 and Lyons, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student. 

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behaviour by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, aparthy,  create a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lower teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect on the academic performance of students.

Studies have investigated the relationship between school factors and students academic achievement. To complement these studies, the present research will examine the status of English Language in general, and the aforementioned areas of school factors as they affect student’s academic performance in Nigerian schools

The place of Junior Secondary school (JSS) in the country’s educational ladder is the Upper Basic Curriculum which covers JSS 1-3. This change came into being as a result of Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme a nine (9) years basic educational programme, right from primary to junior secondary with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and provide education for all. UBE was launched and executed by the Federal Government of Nigeria. 

Ogun state is a state in South-west Nigeria, established in the year 1976. It borders Lagos state to the south, Oyo and Osun states to the north, Ondo state to the east and the Republic of Benin to the West. Abeokuta is the capital and the largest city in the state. Ogun state has twenty (20) local Government Areas Out of these 20 Local Government Areas (LGA’s) 

The study area, Ewekoro Local Government Area first came into existence on 22nd of May, 1981 and it was later merged with Ifo Local Government in the year 1989 by the Federal military Government. On the 16th of December 1996 the Local Government was fully restored as an autonomous local government. The Local Government is bounded by Yewa south in the west Ifo in the south. Abeokuta North and Obafemi Owode in the north and east respectively. It has a land area of 63.5Square with an estimated population of about 55,156 people based on the 2006 population census.

Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school factors  on students’ academic performance, Oluchukwu (2000) asserted that school factors are essential aspect of educational planning. He went further to explain that unless schools are well situated, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, effective teaching and learning may not take place.

 The study by Ajayi (2007) maintained that a high level of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. They also emphasized that structural effectivness, proper ventilation and well sited instructional space lead to successful teaching and learning process in Nigeria secondary schools.However, little is known specifically on the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance in English language in a cosmopolitan centre like Ogun State, which is the focus of this study.

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance in English language. Specifically the study:

i. described the general school factors that influence students academic performance;

ii. examined the relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language.

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the study

i. What are the school factors that influence students’ academic performance?

ii. Is there any significance relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language?

iii. Is there any significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of male students?

iv. Is there any significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of female students?

Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were tested in the study:

Ho1: There is no significance relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language

Ho2: There is no significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of male students

Ho3: There is no significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of female students

Significance of the Study 

The importance and relevance of this study cannot be over emphasized. It is hoped that this study will provide useful information for parents, students, schools and educational policy makers on how the various school factors can help students in achieving its goal. 

On the part of the parents, this study will equip them with information on how they can enhance their children academic performance by providing for them the necessary school materials needed to boost their learning, most especially in English language. Students who are directly affected will also find this study useful by knowning the importance of teachers and instructional materials in teaching-learning process as it relates to their mastery of English language.

To the schools, the result of this study will help them in providing for adequate instructional materials that will make learning easy for their students. Education policy makers will benefit from this study by being more informed to make implementable educational policies.    

Scope of the Study

This research work focused on the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance  in  English language among Secondary schools in Ewekoro Local Government Area, Ogun State. It covers all the public secondary schools students in Ewekoro Local Government Area of Ogun State. However, three public secondary schools were selected.

The selection of sample for this research work was done using simple random sampling technique in which the researcher used dip-hand method to select the schools for the study. The instrument used was questionnaire. The statistical instrument used in data analysis was percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation.

 Operational Definition of Terms

School Factors: The total elements which make up a school which include the school management, staff of the school, and the school building. 

Academic Performance: Outcome of a test on students’ attainment in English language indicated by test scores.




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