ETHICS AND UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background of the study
According to Ogungbemi, (2015) ethics is about behavior and ways of thinking, especially in situations where our choice may affect the dignity and well-being of others. Because ethical behavior involves free choice, it can not be captured in the rule. The standard of reference for what is ethical must exist “outside the human definition” and therefore can not be open to human negotiation (Ogungbemi, 2015). Although Ayodele in 2014 argues that the terms morality and ethics are often used interchangeably, they can be distinguished. By morality we mean the tradition of laws, rules and practices that exist in every society and that seeks to describe, persuade and demand certain forms of behavior while proscribing others. On the other hand, by ethics, we mean the disciplined reflection on morality which constitutes the branch of philosophy that studies moral questions (Ayodele, 2014). Thus, Bossaert, (2015) added that the reflection on the correctness of the error of an act, a law or a rule in particular is an example of ethics. According to Bruce, (2014) ethics is a discipline dealing with the study of what is good and bad, good and evil, and duty and moral obligation. Therefore, ethical issues are the set of customary principles and practices that embody a kind of normative code (of behavior, values) to respect them differently. Better corporate governance and accountability have once again surfaced as demanding issues. Organizations continue to recognize the value of an ethical culture (Bruce, 2014).
However, Idogbe, (2012) agreed that ethics of the administrative performance is among the basic foundations for running the work efficiently and effectively, and an important issue for the administrative to carry out his/her duties. With the expansion of the educational institutions and augmentation of their responsibilities and burdens, it needs the management officials’ troublesome responsibilities and assignments, thus each establishment can embrace skilled ethical rules and politics different from the other. This is because every function has its unique own functional ethics to be observed by the workers. Moreover, the commitment of professional leaders to professional ethics motivates them to carry out their work according to rules, regulations, instructions, and academic standards, in clear relationships between these leaders and faculty members (Idogbe, 2012).
Consequently, Demmke, (2015) asserted that this relationship will be established on a basis governed by an ethical, academic unit based on mutual respect and demonstrating more individual freedom so that each one can enjoy personal independence that motivates him towards more production. Professional ethics is the main framework that controls individual work while remaining within the rules, regulations, and guidelines. These are things that can not be transcended, the overcoming of which represents a clear revocation of the demands of professional and ethics (Demmke, 2015). Therefore, it is clear that the ethics of the profession is the self-taught and controlling work of the individual, the point of evaluation of his work, and the setting on the right path towards fulfilling the tasks required faithfully. Attention is increasingly focused on the ethics of administrative work, and there is a pressing need for a framework to be observed by managers in order to improve their behavior, to define Their responsibilities and their commitment to their profession, and their contribution to the development of the educational institution, and to promote it in order to meet the new challenges (Valock, 2013).
Kayode, (2011) adds that here arises the need for the presence of the ethics of the management profession which will define its path, illustrate and govern its behaviors. As a result, attention has focused on the ethical aspect of the profession and the development of a code of ethics for the management, practice, and work management of education and training in this field. Each profession, regardless of the tasks assigned to it, has its ethical and professional foundations to be followed by the workers and observed by the owners as well. Its ethical criteria are extracted from the nature of its activities and its objectives. Consequently, the ethics of the profession is a set of principles, rules, and ethical criteria that must be respected by practitioners of the profession (Kayode, 2011)
Thus, Adesina, (2010) opined that ethics is a system of values and laws that define what is right and what is good. It is fundamentally concerned with goodness and goodness, and the duty of conduct. Then Segun (2010) correspondingly adds that Aristotle considered ethics or conduct as a virtue, which has two sides: the mental side and the moral side. Aristotle saw that the mental side could be known by learning, but the moral side could be known through usual actions. In addition, virtue and morality are, in his opinion, a number of essential characteristics, such as truthfulness, trust, chastity, justice, and sincerity (Segun, 2010). Furthermore, Omuya, (2011) opined that in Oxford Dictionary, the term “ethics” refers to the principles of politeness and rules of conduct. However, ethics is defined as a number of abstract rules and principles to which humans are subjected in their behavior and which are the criteria for assessing their behavior. These rules and principles are drawn from a global philosophical image-based either on the brain or religion or on both.
Al-Soud & Battah (2013) concluded from this definition and other definitions that:
Ethics are a number of abstract rules and principles These rules and principles are based either upon a mental or religious foundation.
The international literature on this topic indicates that the current trend in the management-related ethical values is based upon many axles such as: importance of citizenship, prevalence of freedom. The American Principals Association defined the ethical dimensions that are revealing in the educational administrative behavior, which were summarized by Idogbe, (2012) as follows:
Making the welfare and interests of students the main focus of its decisions and actions. To fulfill his professional and humanitarian responsibilities faithfully, sincerely, and sincerely. Support and safeguard the civil and human rights of all workers. Respect and respect the constitution, laws, and rules applicable to the university. Apply the prescribed educational policies and note the laws, regulations, and guidelines of their educational system. To follow proper and suitable was to develop and enhance educational laws and policies. To circumvent the use of his/her position to get hold of personal gains or interest, whether in political, social, or economic domains. To seek to track down academic degrees or vocational qualifications from accredited institutions. Maintain the professional level and work to improve its efficiency through research and continuity of professional growth. Respect all valid contracts and agreements, and commit to everything that concerns them..