CHAPTER ONE


1.1              Background to the Study

1.2              Statement of the Problem

1.3               Purpose of the Study

1.5               Research Questions

1.6               Research Hypotheses

1.8              Significance of the Study

1.9                Scope of the study

1.10           Limitation of the Study

1.11          Operational Definition of Terms



2.1       The Concept of Poor Academic Performance

2.2       Causes of Poor Academic Performance

2.3       Family Background and Poor Academic Performance of Students

2.4       Family and Students’ Academic Performance

2.5       School Factors

2.6       Teaching and Learning Typewriting in School

2.7       Methods of typewriting

2.8       Apprenticeship method

2.9       problem Solving Method

2.10     The discovery method


3.1       Research Design

3.2       Study Area

3.3       population

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5       Instrumentation

3.6       Administration of Instrument

3.7       scoring of Instrument

3.8       Procedure for Data Analysis

                                                             CHAPTER FOUR


4.1              Introduction

4.2              Analysis of Bio-Data

4.3              Analysis of Data Collected from Respondents

4.4              Hypotheses Testing

4.5       Discussion of Findings




5.2       SUMMARY

5.3       CONCLUSION




                                                               CHAPTER ONE


1.1  Background to the Study

Asikhia, (2010) in Contemporary Business Education   emphasized  on  the differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination. The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and  generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects. 

Ijaiya, (2002) in his  book opined  that managing any institution of learning involves planning, organising, co­ordinating, motivating, monitoring, evaluating, etc. The teaching and learning activities to ensure the attainment of educational goals and objectives. In other words, teaching and learning are the central focus of school management. It is however through examination that pupils' learning is ascertained. This is why teaching is fundamentally considered incomplete without some form of evaluation. Examinations are therefore part and parcel of school management functions. Amoor,  (2008)  stated  that  secretarial Education is a vocational programme that is offered in Secondary schools, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and Universities primarily to educate and train students to become secretarial teachers and administrators with the appropriate skills and competencies to take up a career in teaching, office occupation and business. 

Afe, (2001) opined  that the issue of academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern   to all and sundry. Teachers have shown an important influence on students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students. Consequent upon the observed deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of secondary school students in public secondary schools,  one wonders if the high failure rates of the students is not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools.

 There are several factors affecting student academic performance in subject like Business study at  the junior secondary school level in school. These are socio-economic status, motivation, intellectual ability, stress, and social factors. The relationship between socio-economic status and academic performance is a saturated research area. Studies have proven that socio-economic status is highly correlated with academic performance, at all levels and in all courses. Some research however suggests that socio-economic status is a determinant of college attendance rather than academic performance. In a more common sense assessment, self-supporting students are likely to miss classes due to work and the pressure of putting food on the table and the payment of tuition fees.

The fact remains however that classroom attendance is necessary for a better understanding of their knowledge and its application. In some schools class attendance is compulsory and has a bearing on the grades of the students. Given the above-mentioned assumptions, the self-supporting student therefore gets lower grades than his classmates who belong to the higher socio-economic status.

            In the context of academic achievement of science and technology students is affected by socio-economic status, motivation, intellectual ability, stress and social factors. In addition to the abovementioned factors an interesting area in the research of science and technology students academic achievement may focus on emotional quotient and its effect on academic achievement. Another realm of research in science and technology students academic achievement is to look into emotional intelligence and its effect on the academic achievement of students in school.

Okpale, (2001) revealed how students’ academic performances in school subject is of interest to researchers, educationist and parents alike.  Correlates of academic achievement of individual students in many disciplines have been identified through school factor and students attitude towards academic performance in various discipline. Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among  educators, academics, and policy makers. In the course of  writing this  study, the researcher intend to investigates Students poor performance  in typewriting  examination in  tertiary  institution

Typewriting is a skill subject that requires hundred percent performance of a would be typist. A typewriting student with the ambition of working in an  office as a secretary must be knowledgeable in typewriting, if she would want to work to the satisfaction of her employer and receive the remunerations accorded efficient typist.  The ability to type very well depends on how serious a student is, right from his/her days in the school. The student must have great interest in the subject knowing fully well that to earn a living, as far as secretarial work in the office is concerned, depends on her ability to perform creditably. Some students gain the knowledge- of typewriting in secondary schools level before continuing in Tertiary Institutions. This is because of the new system of education (6-3-3-4) introduced as a result of the inadequacy of the old system (6-5-2-3). The 6-3-3-4, system means Six years of Primary Education, Three years of Junior Secondary School, Three years of Senior Secondary School, and Four years of Post-Secondary Education or Tertiary Institution.

The new system of education emphasized typewriting at the Secondary School level more than before. This is because typewriting at that level among other subjects can help to diversify, opportunities and roles open to students, minimize the rate of drop-outs due to narrow programme offerings in the old system; develop skills and ability to make sound reasoning, equip him to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology, and reduce the rate of unemployment at that level of education, since students would be able to work in offices/industries or run their own business. It  is  on this  basis  that  the researcher  intend  to  carry  out a research study  on the causes of high rate of failure of students in Typewriting Examination Tertiary Institutions with regard to Secretarial Department of F.C.E. (T) Akoka and LACOED, Ijankin, Lagos.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

it  has  been observed  that the attitude of most parents to Typewriting "also influences to a great extent the impact on their children to offer the course; likewise Typewriting is seen as a course for the less privileged ones in the society.  The problems of study was  based on the fast decaying school facilities and like lack of infrastructures like buildings, chairs, tables,  and so on. It has been observed that there is only display of such materials by various schools by the officials of the Ministry of Education. The effect of this neglect mismanagement, poor maintenance and inadequate supply of these instructional materials has created the following problems:

1)                  Students tend to learn slowly in class.

2)                  What is learnt is not easily recalled.

3)                  Poor academic performance of students in internal and external examinations.

Inability of student to practicalize what is learnt especially things having to do with technical or vocational skills Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about student’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect students’ academic performance. The question therefore is what is the cause of this fallen standard and poor academic performance of students? Is the fault entirely that of teachers or students or both of them? Is it that students of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or is it in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect, separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out students and teachers’ perception of the causes of poor academic performance among secondary school students in Nigeria

     Aremu (2003) stated that poor academic performance is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics and English language among secondary school students. Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. The problem of the study therefore, is to identify Students poor performance  in typewriting  examination in  tertiary  institution, with reference to Federal  College  Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba Lagos  State.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify Students poor performance  in typewriting  examination in  tertiary  institution, with reference to Federal  College  Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba Lagos  State).

Specifically the study aims at finding out:

1         To determine whether  admission of Students without the required qualification affect students performance in Type- writing.

2         To  determine   whether  students' Attitudes' contribute to their poor performance in Type-Writing.

3         To  know  if    inadequate Learning Facilities contribute to students  poor  Performance  in Type-Writing?

4         To  know  if  Lecturers  teaching styles influence  student's performance  in Type-Writing.

5         To  determine  if  over-confidence in students with pre-knowledge of Type- writing affect their performance in Type- writing.

6         To  know  whether lack of talent contribute to Students' Performance in Type- writing.

1.4              Research Questions                       

The major research question were derived from students poor performance  in typewriting  examination in  tertiary  institution.

Other research questions includes:

1         Does Admission of Students without the required qualification affect students performance in Type- writing?

2         Does Students' Attitudes' contribute to their poor performance in Type-Writing?

3          Does Inadequate Learning Facilities contribute to their Poor Performance in Type-Writing?

4          Does Lecturers Imparting of Adequate Knowledge of the subject affect student's performance?

5         Does Over-confidence in students with pre-knowledge of Type- writing affect their performance in Type- writing?

6         Does lack of talent contribute to Students' Performance in Type- writing?

1.5              Research Hypotheses  

The null hypotheses based on the purpose of the study will be postulated and         tested during the investigation:

Ho1: Admission of Students without the required qualification   will  not  affect students performance in Type- writing.

Ho2: Students' Attitudes'   do  not  contribute to their poor performance in Type-Writing.

Ho3: Inadequate Learning  Facilities   will  not  contribute to their Poor Performance in Type-Writing.

Ho4:Over-confidence in students with pre-knowledge of  Type- writing  does  not   affect their performance in Type- writing.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This will reveal the major causes of failure in Type-Writing with a view to suggesting ways of improvement which the researcher hope will be useful to the students, lecturers, the department, college and the nation as a whole.

This study will be of benefit to the parents teachers association in public schools, teachers and  private  school  teachers, school administrators, ministries of education and other affiliated government agencies.

The study is also expected to be of benefit to the government as well as school board. It will be beneficial most importantly to the secretariats  studies.

The study will help various school administrators to understand the benefit of encouraging students’ attitudes towards their academic performance. It will enable school administrators to know the best methods to adopt in order to maintain positive attitudes of students that would increase the students academic performance and school effectiveness. It will also enhance school administrators to understand their position on their job towards students’ academic performances.

The ministry of education will also be of benefit from  this study through proper planning and implementation school facilities that will encourage students’ attitudes towards their academic performance. The ministries will help encourage students  attitudes and good interrelationship between school administrators and their students.

This  study  will be  of  great benefits to the parents as this  will enable  parents to know how to teach their children to cultivate good attitudes in their studies.

The government agencies will also be of great benefit to this study through provision of school facilities, conducive academic environment and improve standard of education. The need to strengthen efficient supervisory control on students’ attitudes.

Other beneficiaries include scholars of  students attitudes and academic performances who will gain more knowledge about other area of interest which requires further investigation.

Lastly, it will be useful to future researcher in the related line of study.

1.7              Scope of the study

The research work is limited in scope to students poor performance  in typewriting  examination in  tertiary  institution within Lagos  state  with  reference  to  Federal  College  Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba Lagos  State.

1.8       Limitation of the Study

This research work is limited to some selected tertiary institutions in Lagos (Federal  College  Of Education Technical, Akoka-Yaba Lagos  State). This is  due to the problems of finance, time, transportation and reliability of the questionnaire. The limitation of this study is as a result of time constraint and distance to be covered during the course of this study.

Conclusively some students attributed their failure to continue in this course to their parents disapproval of it. It is not possible for the researcher to get  in touch with the parents to those students to know their opinion about the course of Typewriting.

1.9   Operational Definition of Terms

These words in order for the readers of this work to understand the defined below:-

Academic Performance - This is the level of academic education attainable by an individual at a particular point in time as depicted by the subjects’ performance.

Teaching – This is a process of imparting knowledge or the transfer of knowledge from somebody who knows (the teacher) to an individual who does not know (the students).

Attitude – This refers to an organization of motivational perceptional and cognitive process with respect to some aspects of the individual’s world. The attitude one has on something determines to a great extent, how he/she would be involved in that thing. Attitude affects all we do in human life.

Education- it is the aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops abilities, skills and other forces of behavior of positive (and sometimes of negative) value in the society in which he lives.

Junior Secondary School (J.S.S):- This refers to the exploratory level. This level is also pre-vocational level, where students are taught integrated subjects like Integrated Sciences, Business Studies and Arts and Crafts. In Business Studies, subjects like Office Practice, Shorthand, Typewriting, Commerce and Book-Keeping are also being integrated in the umbrella of Business Studies.

This level lasts for three years and is called pre-vocational as foundation courses are offered that leads to continuity at either the technical school or at the secondary school.

Senior Secondary School (S.S.S.I). This level lasts for three years too. Students who pass very well move to this level for academics in subjects being integrated which are then separated and studied each as a different subject. This level leads to the Award of Senior School Certificate Examination and also a stepping stone to further studies at the Higher Institution of Learning,

Transitional: According to Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Transitional refers to "Passing from one condition, form, stage, activity, place e.t.c. to another". Also according to the Dictionary of Education -Second Edition, transitional pertains to a state of transition, to passage from one place to another, historically in evolution pertaining to passage from one definable type, style or stage to another, changing from an earlier to a later firm.

Typewriting: Typewriting is defined according to Dictionary of Education - Second edition, as a Course in which emphasis is given to those typewriting skills and knowledge required of office workers are displayed. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language defines typewriting as the art or process of using a typewriter for reproducing letters, figures that resemble printed ones.




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