THE ROLE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA


THE ROLE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

                                                          ABSTRACT:    

Vocational education is that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. Vocational and technical education is directed towards the preparation for occupational life, since the recipients are equipped to face the challenges of the world of work for national development.

    The poor state of vocational education and training in Nigeria started right from the educational foundation instituted by the colonial government which paid more emphasis on training students for white collar jobs but paid little or no attention to vocational education and training.

Poverty reduction or income generation is significant in the lives of the young people after degree education. The inquiries along these lines are: what is the expectation of Nigeria youths after their degree education? Do they truly find their potentials and capabilities having scaled through the degree education? What at that point would we be able to state are the contributions of Nigeria tertiary educational institutions to the reduction of youths unemployment in the nation? It is important; to learn the power of Nigerian higher education for poverty reduction among the young people and to proffer that Technical and Vocational Education is one of the measures for improvement and supportability of youth empowerment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content                                            Page

Title page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    i

Approval    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ii

Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iii

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iv

Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    v

CHAPTER ONE    2

INTRODUCTION    2

1.1    Background to the Study    2

1.2    Statement of the Problem    5

1.3    Objectives of the Study    5

1.4    Research Questions    5

1.5    Research Hypotheses    6

1.6    Significance of the Study    6

1.7    Scope of the Study    7

1.8    Definition of Terms    7

CHAPTER TWO    8

LITERATURE REVIEW    8

2.1    Vocational Education    8

2.2    The Current Status of Vocational Education in Nigeria    10

2.3    Youths Unemployment    13

2.4    Unemployment Rate in Nigeria and Government Responses to Achieving Youths Empowerment    16

2.5    Causes of Unemployment in Nigeria    20

2.6    Repositioning TVET in Nigeria for Youths Employment    22

2.7    Problems Militating Against Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria    24

2.8    Suggested Ways and Strategies to Revamp Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria    26

CHAPTER THREE    26

3.1 Research Design    26

3.2 Type and Data Source    27

3.3 Data Collection Procedure    27

3.4 Type of Data and Data Collection Tools    27

3.5 Population of the study    28

3.6 Sampling Procedure    28

3.7 Sampling Type    28

3.8 Sampling Size    28

3.9 Data Presentation and Analysis    28

3.10    Decision Rule    29

CHAPTER FOUR    29

DATA ANALYSIS    29

4.1 INTRODUCTION    29

4.2 Bio- data of respondents    29

4.2 Research Questions    31

4.3 Research Hypothesis    38

4.4 Discussion of findings    40

CHAPTER FIVE    41

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION    41

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS    41

CONCLUSION    41

RECOMMENDATION    42

REFERENCES    43

APPENDIX I    45

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

On attainment of independence in 1960, Nigeria was faced with the problem of social and economic development problems. Also there was the need to develop all aspects of education in the country. Vocational and technical education was one of those aspects expected to build up the nation to reduce joblessness among youths. As indicated by Nnanna, (2012), in an offer to develop Nigeria and tackle the issues of unemployment, numerous commissions were set up to analyze the educational and manpower prerequisites in various divisions of the economy. Such reports was the Ashby commission titled “Investment in Education” in 1960 and Cottiers/Caunce report on the development of technical and commercial education below professional level between 1961- 1976. The Ashby commission report suggested measures which would help to establish the foundation upon which Nigeria could build a balanced system of vocational/technical education. He was of the opinion that technicians were grossly in short supply, and that facilities for training them were inadequate. In a related manner Cottiers/Caunce report noted with dissatisfaction, the absence of national survey to ascertain from industries, the nature and extent of the educational needs for the planning and administration for the vocational education system. The report additionally revealed that since firms do not stay static, such overview must be nonstop with the goal that mechanical innovation will reflect in the vocational education curriculum. The important aspect of the report was the recognition of the fact that there was need to develop and increase vocational and technical education in Nigeria. And this informed the establishment of National Directorate of Employment (NDE), by Decree No, 24 of 1989, to train young people on vocational education and skill acquisition, with the aim to reduce unemployment (Amoor, 2009).

According to the National Policy on Education of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), vocational education is that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. Vocational and technical education is directed towards the preparation for occupational life, since the recipients are equipped to face the challenges of the world of work for national development. In a related way, Okonkwo and Obinali, (2012) attested that the objective of vocational education and training is to influence the fundamental practical skills, potential, work propensities, attitudes and different qualities to the beneficiaries. This is aimed at preparing the students for self reliance through self-employment. In confirmation of this assertion, Odugbesan (1995) noticed that vocational education furnishes the beneficiaries with all the important work qualities, pragmatic skills and abilities, knowledge and attitude to empower them live independently after graduation. In most developed nations of the world, vocational education and training are given an intense consideration and are viewed as an important investment. This is the reason many youths through vocational training have acquired the right skills that will enable them secure employment which at the long run benefit them and the society.

    On contrary, the poor state of vocational education and training in Nigeria started right from the educational foundation instituted by the colonial government which paid more emphasis on training students for white collar jobs but paid little or no attention to vocational education and training. Vocational education and training promotes self reliant among the students on graduation. Unfortunately, after numerous years of independent, Nigeria despite everything is still practicing the pre-independent type of education, which just prepare graduates to look for civil service and other related employments, in spite establishment of specialized institutions such as universities of technology and polytechnics which is yet to produce the required result to address this issues.

Presently, there are 125 technical/vocational centres in the Nigeria (wwweveryculturecom/-/nigeria.html) which is not adequate compared to the increasing population of Nigeria estimated at 170 million. These few vocational centres cannot produce enough skilled manpower to reduce the increasing unemployed people in Nigeria. Nnanna (2002) noticed that, Government of different administrations, have endeavored to improve educational delivery particularly as it identifies with vocational and technical education. This is because of the recognition of the role which vocational education and training would play in the development of the country, by a way of reducing unemployment and youth restiveness in Nigeria. Hence, the degree to which vocational education and training shows in reducing unemployment in Nigeria forms the basis of this study.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Poverty reduction or income generation is significant in the lives of the young people after degree education. The inquiries along these lines are: what is the expectation of Nigeria youths after their degree education? Do they truly find their potentials and capabilities having scaled through the degree education? What at that point would we be able to state are the contributions of Nigeria tertiary educational institutions to the reduction of youths unemployment in the nation? It is important; to learn the power of Nigerian higher education for poverty reduction among the young people and to proffer that Technical and Vocational Education is one of the measures for improvement and supportability of youth empowerment.

1.3    Objectives of the Study

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of vocational education in reducing unemployment in Nigeria. However, the specific objectives include:

i.    To understand the skill areas of vocational and technical education that can provide employment for youth in Nigeria

ii.    To examine the relevant areas of self independent in vocational and technical education

iii.    To identify the problems and prospects of vocational and technical education

iv.    To determine the causes of youth unemployment and the consequences of youth unemployment

1.4    Research Questions

The followings are the research questions this study is poised to give answers to:

i.    What are the skill areas of vocational and technical education that can provide employment for youth in Nigeria?

ii.    What are the relevant areas of self independent in vocational and technical education?

iii.    What are the problems and prospects of vocational and technical education?

iv.    What are the causes of youth unemployment and the consequences of youth unemployment?

1.5    Research Hypotheses

The following statements are considered to be the research hypotheses that will be tested in this study:

i.    There is a significant relationship between vocational and technical education and employment opportunities

ii.    There is a significant impact of unemployment on youth in society.

1.6    Significance of the Study

Unemployment as the term implies, has been a major problem experienced all over the country. Some youths hardly know that vocational and technical education can enhance the rate of employment in the country as well as the well being of themselves and the society. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out how vocational and technical education can be of help in addressing youth unemployment in Nigeria. It seeks to assess how the training and skills acquired in vocational/technical education can provide the necessary platform topromote entrepreneurship as well as reduce unemployment. It is believed that vocational/technical education holds the key to national development. How can the youth be empowered to acquire skills and ideas to reduce the present mismatch between labour demands and employability of Nigerian youths. This study seeks to define the concept of vocational and technical education, examine some of the factors that promote unemployment, assess government efforts at reducing unemployment and the potential impact of vocational and technical education in promoting entrepreneurship. It concludes by proposing some strategies that can sustain an entrepreneurial culture and reduction in youth unemployment.

However, this study will be very beneficial to the youths, also to the state and federal government, as it is aimed at ascertaining the importance of vocational and technical education and how it serves as a source of employment and self reliance for the individuals of the society with reference to the youths in particular.

1.7    Scope of the Study

The study is to cover relevant areas as regarded the contribution of vocational and technical education to the overall improvement of unemployment in the society. The areas to be covered in this study are some areas in Lagos Mainland Local Government, Lagos State.

1.8    Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as they are going to be used in this study:-

Vocation: A Latin word which means a calling and an invitation to understand some important tasks.

Unemployment: Unemployment implies lack of employment or refers to a situation where people are not able to find paid work.

Youth: A young person who has not yet reached adulthood and refers to the time period before childhood and adulthood

Skills: An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate systematic and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carry out complex activities or job function involving ideas, things and people.

.

THE ROLE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.