Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –Title Page – – – – – – – – – –Certification – – – – – – – – – –Dedication – – – – – – – – – –Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – –Abstract – – – – – – – – – –Table of Content – – – – – – – – –

Chapter One: IntroductionBackground of the Study – – – – – –Statement of the Problem – – – – – –Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –Research Questions – – – – – – –Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –Significance of the Study – – – – – – –Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –Definition of Terms – – – – – – –

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –Chapter Three: Research Methodology3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – –

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY          Education is the best legacy a nation can give to its citizens especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources. Formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any society. In recent times there has been a decline in the standard of education even at the university level, this has caused differential academic performance of students in the Universities across Nigeria. Academic performance has been described as the scholastic standing of a student at a given moment. This scholastic standing could be explained in terms of the grades obtained in a course or groups of courses, this is done after the examination has been conducted.This study looks at a comparative analysis of Education/Economics and Economics students’ pattern of carryover in courses between 2007-2010 at the University of Benin. Students get carryover in courses when they fail a particular course of study that is when they get a grade of “F”. Grade “F” is a carryover grade. The national University commission has a generalized grading system for Nigerian Universities. The table below show this,Table 1. GP as based on criteria established by the National Universities Commission (NUC) guidelines.A = 70% and above = 5pointsB = 60%-69% = 4pointsC = 50% - 59% = 3pointsD = 45- 49% = 2pointsE = 40 – 44% = 1pointsF = 0 – 39% = 0 pointsSource: NUC-approved scoring and Grading system, University of Benin.From the table above, it can be seen that grade “F” is 0 points which means the student fails the particular course in which he/she has the F grade.Adebule (2004), opined that the scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria Universities has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents, because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria.Failure in any examination can be attributed to poor performance, poor academic performance according to Aremu (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examine and testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard.Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, but its effect is also equally grave on society in terms of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics.The issue of poor academics performance of students in Nigeria has been much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Delta state and Nigeria at large. The quality of education depends on the teachers are reflected in the performance of their duties. Over time pupils' academic performance in both internal and external examinations had been used to determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Ajao 2001). Lecturers have been shown to have an important influence on students' academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students (Afe 2001).Poor academic performance of students in Nigeria Universities has been linked to poor Lecturers performance in terms of accomplishing the teaching task, negative attitude to work, and poor lecturing habits which have been attributed to poor motivation (Ofoegbu 2004).It has also been observed that conditions of infrastructure, as well as instructional materials in the Universities in Nigeria, are poor (Oredin 2000). These prevailing conditions would definitely show a negative influence on the lecturing quality in Universities, which may translate to poor academic performance, attitude, and values of the University students.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMIt is apparent that there is an astronomical decline in students' academic achievement in Nigeria Universities. According to Igbo (2007), lack of success can lead to inappropriate behavior and frustration on the part of students. In the university of Benin, lecturers are faced with the task of placing the students in an educational setting in which services are provided as a setting tailored to the students learning. The setting in which services are provided has a strong influence on the academic achievement of the students. A number of reasons or factors have been found to have contributed to students’ poor achievement. Some of these factors include students’ study habits and lecturing methods used by the lecturers in the lecturing process (Yalam & Fatiku, 2007).

1.3     PURPOSE OF STUDYThis study is aimed at comparatively analyzing the education/economics and economics students’ pattern of carryover of courses between 2007 to 2010 at the University of Benin. The analysis would be based on the results of students in education economics between the period of 2007 to 2010 academic session.

1.4     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDYEducation at the university level is the apex of academic study, hence it is believed that if student patterns improve, academic performance will also improve. The study typically looks at the pattern of carryover of courses of the student offering Education/Economics from the period of 2007 to 2010 and find out reasons why students fail courses and carryover courses. These reasons can also be deduced from student’s pattern of carryover and treated accordingly. The findings of this research will assist students in their academics, the study will also make recommendations that will be useful to the University of Benin Community.

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONSThis study would seek to provide answers to the following questions:1. Is a student’s pattern of carrying over dependent on his level in school    Is there any significant difference in the rate of carrying over between Education/Economics and Economic student?    Is a student’s pattern of carry-over dependent on his course area?

1.6     DEFINITIONS OF TERMSStudy: The systematic acquisition of knowledge and an understating of facts and principlesExamination: The act or process of testing students by questionsGrade: Criteria used in measuring performancePattern: A discernable regularity in the world or a particular situation.Carry Over: Transfer or persist from one stage or sphere of activity to another



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