Infact, the aim of this study is to create awareness on the Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State. Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing. Halitosis is a condition affecting both male and female in all ages, Halitosis can cause by eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onions, smoking and drinking alcohol, which when absorbed into our blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad breath, suffering from some systemic disease such as liver, kidney, diabetic mellitus, and digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or intestines.


Title page - - - - - - - - - - i

Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii

Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vii

Table of Contents - - - - - - - - viii



Background of the Study - - - - - - - 1

Statement of the Problems - - - - - - - 4

Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - - 5

Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 5

Research Questions - - - - - - - - 6

Scope of the Study - - - - - - - - 6



History - - - - - - - - - - 7

Causes - - - - - - - - - - 10

Types - - - - - - - - - - 14

Sign and Symptoms - - - - - - - - 15

Diagnosis - - - - - - - - - - 16

Prevention and Control - - - - - - - 20

Management - - - - - - - - - 23

CHAPTER III - - - - - - - - - 27 

Research Design - - - - - - - - 27

Area of the Study - - - - - - - - 28

Population of the Study - - - - - - - 29

Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - - 30

Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - - 30

Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - - 31

Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - - 31

Procedure for Data Collection - - - - - - 32

Procedure for Data Analysis - - - - - - 32


Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - - 34


Summary - - - - - - - - - - 38

Discussion - - - - - - - - - - 39

Finding - - - - - - - - - - 40

Recommendations - - - - - - - - 40

Suggestions - - - - - - - - - 41

Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 41 

References - - - - - - - - - - 43 

Questionnaire - - - - - - - - - 45



Background of the Study

Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing (Gage, 2007).

Halitosis can be important social problem in which the standard dental treatment and mouth wash that are often recommended provide only temporary relief. The smell is from an oral source due to bacterial activities (Rosemberg, 2002).

Oral malodor is primarily the result of microbial metabolism, the mouth is a home of hundreds of bacterial species with various nutritional preferences. The most common location for mouth related halitosis is the tongue. Tongue bacterial produce malordor and fatty acid and count for about 80 to 90 percent of all cases of mouth related bad breath. Large quantities of naturally occurring bacteria are often found on the dorsum of the tongue, where they are relatively undisturbed by normal activities. This part of the tongue is relatively dry and poorly cleansed and bacterial populations can thrive on remnants of food deposits, dead epithelial cells and post nasal drip. The convoluted microbial structure of the tongue dorsum provides an ideal habitat for anaerobic bacterial, which flourish under a continually – forming tongue coating of food debris, dead cells, post nasal drip and overlying bacteria living and dead when left on the tongue the anaerobic respiration of such bacterial can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, methyl mercapton, alloymethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide (Tonzentich, 1997).

The organism digest protein, and several fatid substance arise leading to bad breath. Oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic, anerobic gram negative bacterial the creavices of the tongue dorsum can be successfully diagnosed and treated (Lochner et al, 2000).

There are several causes of halitosis although the main one is oral bacterial over 90 million people suffer from chronic halitosis which is medical term for bad breath in most cases halitosis originate from the gums and tongue, caused by bacterial from the decay of food particles, other debris in the mouth and poor oral hygiene. In most cases (85-90%) bad breath originate in the mouth itself.

The intensity of bad breath differ during the day, due to eating of certain foods such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, egg, cheese, smoking and alcohol consumption, since the mouth is exposed to less oxygen and is in active during the night, the odor is usually worse upon awakening (morning breath). Bad breath may be transient of ten disappearing following brushing teeth, flushing or rinsing with special mouth wash (Tammy Devenport, 2007).

Bad breath may also be persistent (chronic bad breath). Which is a more serious condition affecting some 25 percent of the population in varying degrees. It can negatively affect the individual’s personal, social and business relationship leading to poor self esteem and increased stress. Halitosis is a medical term for bad breath and this is quite serious as a social disorder. Halitosis can cause extremely embarrassing situation in social interaction and relationship at work and in your personal life as well (Lell et al, 2006).

However, some bad breath seem to be associated with local pathological causes such as gingivitis (especially ANUG), periodontal disease, infected extraction sockets, or other types of oral species. In some cases, other possibilities that favour oral malodor are the presence of residual blood post operatively, debris under bridge or appliances, ulcer, dry mouth, and perfection of post nasal mucus drip stagnating on the tongue (Wd Kazor, 2002).

Various methods used to control halitosis (bad breath) the most widely-known reason to clean the tongue is for the control of bad breath. Method used against bad breath, such as mints, mouth sprays and mouth wash, may only temporarily mask the odour created by the bacteria on the tongue but cannot cure bad breath because they don’t remove the source of bad breath, in order to prevent the production of the sulfur – containing compounds mention above the bacteria on the tongue must be removed regularly. Most people who clean their tongue use a (tongue scraper) or a tooth brush (Dent Hes, 2007).

Statement of the Problems

Eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onion which when absorbed into our blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad breath.

Suffering from some systemic diseases such as liver and kidney, diabetic mellitus, digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or intestines.

When mouth is dry, saliva production decreases leaving the mouth natural ability to clean itself impaired. Saliva is mouth’s natural mouth wash which contain properties that keep the mouth clean.

Purpose of the Study

1) To identify the occurrence of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi.

2) To find out the causes of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi.

3) To determine the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of Halitosis.

4) To create hope that there is a solution to the problems of Halitosis.

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to find out the occurrence of halitosis among the students in SICHST, Makarfi.

This will help to proffer suggestion in understanding the existing oral health problems and develop oral health programs in the College, and assist oral health practitioners to provide a special oral health services such as oral health talk to entire students in SICHST Makarfi, and also help the management of the College to introduce oral health care in every department.

Research Questions

1) How common is Halitosis among students in SICHST Markafi?

2) What are the predisposing factors that lead to Halitosis?

3) What are the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi?

Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi which consist of causes, prevention and treatment.




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