A PROJECTION REPORT ON THE EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES (SHAPE) ON THE STRENGTH OF INTERLOCKING PAVING STONE
Interlocking paving stone is a good surface material produce as a result of mixture of aggregate to produce a good workability surface.
This research work investigates on how the shapes affect the strength after production. The materials used include cement, sharp sand, quarry dust or granite dust and water.
The structural engineering properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength of each types of interlocking paving stone produced that is 3 Star, Double T, Land Roman, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles respectively. The mix ratio of each stone was also investigated as well as the rate of crushing of the paving stone were noted.
So, from the observation made from this project the average strength of the interlocking paving stone was found to be 5.7gN/mm2 and the highest strength received was found to be that of Bubble glover with a maximum strength of (6.39 N/mm2). While that of Double T (5.59N/mm2), 3 Star (5.39N/mm2), Land Roman (5.30N/mm2) and Digalo (5.19N/mm2)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
List of Plates xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Aims and Objective of the Project 3
1.3 Justification of the Study 4
1.4 Scope of the Project 4
1.5 Proposed Methodology 5
2.0. Literature Review
2.1 Preamble 6
2.2 Structure of Interlocking Paving Blacks 7
2.3 Various shapes of Interlocking Paving Blocks 10
2.4 Laying Patterns 13
2.5 Manufacturing of Interlocking Paving Blocks 16
2.6 Materials Involved 17
2.6.1 Granite (Stone Dust) 17
2.6.2 Cement 18
2.6.3 Interlocking Stone Treatment after Production 20
2.6.4 Water 20
3.1 Procurement of the material components 22
3.2 Equipment used in interlocking paving stone
3.3 Mix Ratio 23
3.4 Determination of the Quantities of Materials 24
3.5 Sieve Analysis of the Material 24
3.6 Experimental Tests 25
3.6.1 Compressive strength test 25
3.6.2 Flexural Strength Test 26
4.0. Analysis of Result and Discussion 29
4.1. Material Tests Performed on the Materials and
4.2. Material Tests 29
4.3. Determination of Quantity of Materials 30
5.0. Conclusions and Recommendations 38
5.1 Conclusions 38
5.2 Recommendation 39
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Composition of Constituent Material Per
Each Shape 32
Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis Result for Quarry Dust 33
Table 4.3: A Compressive strength result for the interlocking
paving stones 34
Table 4.4: Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving
blocks produced in laboratory 35
Table 4.5: Showing Flexural Strength properties of interlocking
paving blocks produced in laboratory 35
Table 4.6: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking
paving blocks produced in laboratory 36
Table: 4.7: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking
paving blocks produced in laboratory 36
Table: 4.8: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking
paving blocks produced in laboratory 37
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2.1a: Small element pavement structure 8
Fig 2.1b: Load spreading in the small element top
layer through shear forces in the joints 8
Fig 2.3a: Categories of Block shapes 11
Fig 2.4a: Types of laying patterns for concrete tiles 14
Fig 2.4b: Types of laying patterns for burnt clay bricks
and concrete blocks 16
Fig 4.1: Particle size distribution for quarry dust 43
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1: Bubble Glover Interlock Tiles
Plate 2: Didalo Interlock Tiles
Plate 3: Double T Interlock Tiles
Plate 4: 3 Star Interlock Tiles
Plate 5: Land Roman Interlock Tiles
Plate 6A: Crushing of the materials in progress
Plate 6B: Crushing of the materials
Researchers have work on various materials for paving and method of pavement construction that will provide adequate support for traffic load with minimum construction cost and maintenance. The concept of interlocking stone pavers dated back over 200years ago to the Roman empire where over 800,000km of roads were built using interlocking paving blocks. The roman developed a simple system for building roads some of the roads are still in use today. The roads were constructed with a well compacted base of lime and gravel covered with a tight fitting cut stone which produced an excellent and economical roadway that remained virtually maintenance free in all types of weather (Wilford, 1994).
The elements are laid directly on a bedding sand layer with edge restraints to allow block layer to develop limited load spreading capacity to keep bond together at great mass and strength (Wilford, 1994).
Investigation has not been intensified on the use of paving stone for pavement unlike surface dressed concrete pavement structures. The potential of different types of paving stone for pavement structure used as car park or foot paths.
In developing countries paving stone are used for the construction of paved area on a large scale. The material use in paving stone are of different variety of colours and shapes which are most likely have effect on the strength of the stone, they create unique and creative pattens while providing a surface that is durable and functional (Akinyemi, et al, 1992).
It is observed that various shapes of these paving stone are produced and widely used in our locality. These include: roman, zenith, double T, 3 star etc. And the laying pattern include, stretcher, running, digalo, bubble glover, diagonal, Herringbone and parquet bond but in lieu of this, different materials and mix ratio are used in order to determine various strength and durability of the paving material. (Shackel, 1990).
Some use dust from quarry with sharp sand and granite of specified size while others prefer using stone dust with granite only but the most commonly used are dust from quarry only. During laying some prefer placing the elements over a graded sand base and interlocked with bedding and joint sand. The jointing sand allows the pavers to interlock and structurally function as one durable layer while others use dust (Sambawa, 2010).
All those variations in materials and production account for variations in properties, quality and strength and it is therefore necessary to carry out a research work to know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength.
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project
The aims of this project is to determine the followings:
i. To determine the strength of the stone
ii. To know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength
iii. To educate student on what they can lay their hand on after graduation.
1.3 Justification of the Study
Due to the versatile indestructible nature of paving stone or tiles, they have been used for about every conceivable application such as residential and commercial garage floor etc. There is need for indepth study of this interlocking paving stone as to why the sudden crack or breakdown of the stone pavers.
1.4 Scope of the Project
The scope of this study include, the following:
⦁ The use of cement, quarry sand, sharp sand and water for the production of the interlocking paving stone.
⦁ The mix ratio used in this project is ratio 1:4 to produce a certain no of interlocking stone of various shapes these are Roman, 3 star, double T, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles were used as an example in the project
⦁ Also the various laboratory test carried out in this project are compressive strength test, flexural strength, particle size distribution or sieve analysis.
1.5 Proposed Methodology
To achieve the above aim and objectives of this research work, the following steps were taken:
i. Procurement of materials
ii. Preparation of mould
iii. Laboratory tests on the materials
iv. Production of the interlocking paving stone
v. Curing of the stones
vi. Determination of the strengths
vii. Analysis of the results.