Interlocking paving stone is a good surface material produce as a result of mixture of aggregate to produce a good workability surface.

This research work investigates on how the shapes affect the strength after production. The materials used include cement, sharp sand, quarry dust or granite dust and water.

The structural engineering properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength of each types of interlocking paving stone produced that is 3 Star, Double T, Land Roman, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles respectively. The mix ratio of each stone was also investigated as well as the rate of crushing of the paving stone were noted.    

So, from the observation made from this project the average strength of the interlocking paving stone was found to be 5.7gN/mm2 and the highest strength received was found to be that of Bubble glover with a maximum strength of (6.39 N/mm2). While that of Double T (5.59N/mm2), 3 Star (5.39N/mm2), Land Roman (5.30N/mm2) and Digalo (5.19N/mm2) 


Title Page i

Certificate ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgment iv

Table of Contents vi

List of Tables ix

List of Figures x

List of Plates   xi

Abstract xii


1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Aims and Objective of the Project 3

1.3 Justification of the Study 4

1.4 Scope of the Project 4

1.5 Proposed Methodology 5


2.0. Literature Review  

 2.1 Preamble 6

2.2 Structure of Interlocking Paving Blacks 7

2.3 Various shapes of Interlocking Paving Blocks 10

2.4 Laying Patterns 13

 2.5 Manufacturing of Interlocking Paving Blocks 16

2.6 Materials Involved 17

2.6.1 Granite (Stone Dust) 17

2.6.2 Cement 18

2.6.3 Interlocking Stone Treatment after Production 20

2.6.4 Water 20


3.1 Procurement of the material components 22

3.2 Equipment used in interlocking paving stone 

production 22

3.3 Mix Ratio 23

3.4 Determination of the Quantities of Materials 24

3.5 Sieve Analysis  of the Material 24

3.6 Experimental Tests 25

3.6.1 Compressive strength test 25

3.6.2 Flexural Strength Test 26


4.0. Analysis of Result and Discussion 29

4.1. Material Tests Performed on the Materials and

Samples    29

4.2. Material Tests 29

4.3. Determination of Quantity of Materials 30 


5.0. Conclusions and Recommendations 38

5.1 Conclusions 38

5.2 Recommendation    39

References 40


Table 4.1: Composition of Constituent Material Per 

Each Shape 32

Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis Result for Quarry Dust 33

Table 4.3: A Compressive strength result for the interlocking

paving stones 34

Table 4.4: Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving

blocks produced in laboratory 35

Table 4.5: Showing Flexural Strength properties of interlocking 

paving blocks produced in laboratory 35

Table 4.6: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking 

paving blocks produced in laboratory 36

Table: 4.7: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory 36

Table: 4.8: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking 

paving blocks produced in laboratory 37


Fig 2.1a: Small element pavement structure 8

Fig 2.1b: Load spreading in the small element top 

layer through shear forces in the joints 8

Fig 2.3a: Categories of Block shapes 11

Fig 2.4a: Types of laying patterns for concrete tiles 14

Fig 2.4b: Types of laying patterns for burnt clay bricks 

and concrete blocks 16

Fig 4.1: Particle size distribution for quarry dust 43 


Plate 1: Bubble Glover Interlock Tiles 

Plate 2: Didalo Interlock Tiles 

Plate 3: Double T Interlock Tiles 

Plate 4: 3 Star Interlock Tiles 

Plate 5: Land Roman Interlock Tiles 

Plate 6A:  Crushing of the materials in progress 

Plate 6B: Crushing of the materials  


1.1 Introduction 

Researchers have work on various materials for paving and method of pavement construction that will provide adequate support for traffic load with minimum construction cost and maintenance. The concept of interlocking stone pavers dated back over 200years ago to the Roman empire where over 800,000km of roads were built using interlocking paving blocks. The roman developed a simple system for building roads some of the roads are still in use today. The roads were constructed with a well compacted base of lime and gravel covered with a tight fitting cut stone which produced an excellent and economical roadway that remained virtually maintenance free in all types of weather (Wilford, 1994).

The elements are laid directly on a bedding sand layer with edge restraints to allow block layer to develop limited load spreading capacity to keep bond together at great mass and strength (Wilford, 1994). 

Investigation has not been intensified on the use of paving stone for pavement unlike surface dressed concrete pavement structures. The potential of different types of paving stone for pavement structure used as car park or foot paths.

In developing countries paving stone are used for the construction of paved area on a large scale. The material use in paving stone are of different variety of colours and shapes which are most likely have effect on the strength of the stone, they create unique and creative pattens while providing a surface that is durable and functional (Akinyemi, et al, 1992). 

It is observed that various shapes of these paving stone are produced and widely used in our locality. These include: roman, zenith, double T, 3 star etc. And the laying pattern include, stretcher, running, digalo, bubble glover, diagonal, Herringbone and parquet bond but in lieu of this, different materials and mix ratio are used in order to determine various strength  and durability of the paving material. (Shackel, 1990).

Some use dust from quarry with sharp sand and granite of specified size while others prefer using stone dust with granite only but the most commonly used are dust from quarry only. During laying some prefer placing the elements over a graded sand base and interlocked with bedding and joint sand. The jointing sand allows the pavers to interlock and structurally function as one durable layer while others use dust (Sambawa, 2010). 

All those variations in materials and production account for variations in properties, quality and strength and it is therefore necessary to carry out a research work to know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project 

The aims of this project is to determine the followings: 

i. To determine the strength of the stone

ii. To know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength 

iii. To educate student on what they can lay their hand on after graduation.

1.3 Justification of the Study

Due to the versatile indestructible nature of paving stone or tiles, they have been used for about every conceivable application such as residential and commercial garage floor etc. There is need for indepth study of this interlocking paving stone as to why the sudden crack or breakdown of the stone pavers.  

1.4 Scope of the Project 

The scope of this study include, the following: 

⦁ The use of cement, quarry sand, sharp sand and water for the production of the interlocking paving stone.

⦁ The mix ratio used in this project is ratio 1:4 to produce a certain no of interlocking stone of various shapes these are Roman, 3 star, double T, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles were used as an example in the project

⦁ Also the various laboratory test carried out in this project are compressive strength test, flexural strength, particle size distribution or sieve analysis.   

1.5 Proposed Methodology 

To achieve the above aim and objectives of this research work, the following steps were taken: 

i. Procurement of materials

ii. Preparation of mould 

iii. Laboratory tests on the materials 

iv. Production of the interlocking paving stone 

v. Curing of the stones 

vi. Determination of the strengths 

vii. Analysis of the results




Researchwap.com is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.com guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.