Soil is an unconsolidated material, composed of solid particles produce by the disintegration of rocks. Before undertaking the structural design of a pavement it is important to determine accurately the wheel load characteristics of the traffic the pavement will carry. 

A study of the characteristics of the area in which the highway is located, the population density, the relation of the proposed road to other highways and traffic control on the specific road under consideration this study done will enable the designer to make conservative or rational traffic, pavement layers use for the durability of the road and to determine it soil strength, many type of road exit so this required different level of design.

          Simple soil tests are required for assessing the quality of earth work; these tests play an important role in maintaining quality of earth work and the performance of payment formation. From the research carried out various result were obtained which shows that the optimum moisture content (OMC) is 16%, while the maximum dry density (MDD) was 1875kg/m3 for the sub-base material and for the base course, the (OMC) was 14.6%, while the (MDD) was 1828kg/m3. The (CBR) result were also obtained which shows that the value obtained were 13% and 12.6% for the sub-base while the base course were 11% and 11%, for the determination of atterberg limits, the liquid was 26%, plastic limit was 15% and plasticity index was 11.46% for the base course, while for the sub-base liquid limit was 46%, plastic limit was 25.26% and the plasticity index was 20.74%. 

The result for the test indicate that the material used does not meet specification requirement for construction process require by the Federal Ministry of Work in Nigeria, the borrow pit should be change for future construction.    


Title Page - - - - - - - - - i

Certification - - - - - - - - - ii

Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - v

Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi


1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1

1.1 Background of Study - - - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 2

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study - - - - 2

1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 3

1.5 Scope of Study - - - - - - - - 3


1.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - 4

1.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 4

1.2 Factors Affecting The Stability of A Structure on a Soil 7

1.2.1 Settlement - - - - - - - - 7

2.1.2 Bearing Capacity - - - - - - - 8

2.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) - - - - - 10

2.5 Atterberg Limits - - - - - - - - 14

2.6 Atterberg Limits and Indices - - - - - 15

2.7 Standard Proctor Test - - - - - - 16

2.8 Grain Size Distribution Test - - - - - 18


3.0 Methodologies - - - - - - - - 19

3.1 Study Area - - - - - - - - 19

3.2 Sampling and Sampling Techniques - - - - 20

3.2.1 Sampling - - - - - - - - - 20

3.2.2 Sample Collection - - - - - - - 20

3.3 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - 20

3.3.1 Determining the Particle-Size Distribution - - 21

3.3.2 Atterberg Limit Test Plasticity Limits - - - 21

3.3.3 Stabilization and the CBR - - - - - 21


4.0 Result and Discussion - - - - - - 23

4.1 Moisture Content - - - - - - - 23

4.2 Mechanical Analysis - - - - - - - 24

4.2.1 Sieve Analysis - - - - - - - 24

4.2.2 Sedimentation Analysis - - - - - - 25

4.3 Atterberg Limit Plasticity of Soils - - - - 25

4.3.1 Atterberg Limit - - - - - - - 25

4.3.2 Liquid Limit - - - - - - - - 30

4.4 Compaction Characteristic (Moisture-Density Relations) 31

4.5 California bearing ratio Result (CBR) - - - - 32


5.0 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 37

5.1 Observation - - - - - - - - 37

5.2 Recommendation - - - - - - - 38

References - - - - - - - - - 39

Appendix ---------40




The road is an infrastructure with a lifespan which allows the movement of people and good from one point to another by various means of transportation at any time, at a given cost and under conditions of comfort and security. 

Road construction always faces the problem of cost, because hung financial resources are generally required to acquire equipment and various materials such as graded aggregate, laterite, tar, or asphalt, timber, concrete, steel and others. Where good borrow materials are not always found near the site, many truck trips from suitable borrow pits are made every day on road construction sites, rendering the projects more expensive. In order to save cost there is need to improve the materials found on the site use for pavement structures. 

The overall objective of this work is to provide a ratio for improving the bearing capacity, determination of moisture content, compaction test, sieve analysis or (gradation), Atterberg limit and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). This will determined the strength of various pavement layers.  


Generally, soil formation within the main campus of the University of Uyo is considered poor. The end result is pot holes etc. A direct consequence could be listed as follows: 

(1) Increase in faulty vehicles 

(2) Wastage in productive journey time 

(3) Traffic congestion 

(4) The nature of the road is a veritable source of the erosion of the soil on the road way. The nature of the roads results in the deformation of the road way like pot-holes, and cracks in some cases complete scraping of the roadway. 


1. This study aims at investigating the road failure characteristics of the main campus formation. 

2. Equally, the study will establish the behavior pattern of the soil on compaction. 

3. The investigation of the pavement design of the road. 

4. Investigation of the road maintenance system.

5. This study generally reduced the cost of construction and shortens the time used in the execution of any road construction done within the University of Uyo main campus vicinity and its environs. 


The outcome of this work will serve as a future reference on the defect of University of Uyo main campus laterite. Researchers, individuals, students, government and non-governmental organizations will be aware of the type of material to be used during road construction.  


This study will be limited to the following area:

i. Only the main campus of the University of Uyo will be considered. 

ii. Laboratory analysis of the samples obtained from the field will be carried out to determine the parameters. 



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