This project focuses on investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure at Ganmon-Afon road Kwara State.

The measuring of pavement and types of pavement. Types of pavement failures causes of pavement were studied and possible solution were provided. Form the investigation causes of pavement failure were identified as ranging from. Use of substandard materials. Inadequate compaction. Poor material strength due to the presence of refuse particle in the materials used. Poor maintenance improper drainage and improper chamber of the road. Some major are pothole, defects observed on the roads are cracking reveling rutting, blast erosion edge deterioration and drainage blockage. The soil samples were collected from three deferent portion of the road. The photographs of failed section were taken. Those problems can be ratified by not compromising standard of work during construction proper maintenance practices from time to and high quality control measure during construction and rehabilitation.   


Title page i

Certification ii

Declaration iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Abstract vi

Table of content vii


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1Aims and objective3

1.2 Scope and objective 3

1.3 Justification 4

1.4 Research methodology 5


2.0 Literature Review 6

2.1 Failure Of Pavement and their 7

2.1.1 Structural failure 7

2.1.2 Function failure     8

2.2.2 Factor to be considered in the construction of Road 10

2.2.3 Geological Factor (design) 10

2.2.2 Geotechnical Factor 11

2.2.3 Usage factor 12

2.3 Common form of pavement 13

2.3.1 Potholes 13

2.3.2 Wheel ruthing 14

2.3.3 Cracking 15

2.3.4 revealing (pitting) 16

2.3.5 Blast erosion 17

2.3.6 Distortion and wave 18

2.3.7 Peeling 18


3.0 Methodology 19

3.1 Reconnance survey of Ganmo- Afon Road 20

3.2 Various Types of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon Road 21

3.3 collection of Samples for Laboratory Test 26

3.3.1 Laboratory Test and Procedures 26

3.3.2 Compaction Test 27

3.4 California Bearing Ration (CBT) Test 33


4.0 Analysis and Discussion of Results 37

4.1 Types and Causes of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon 37


4.2 Subgrade Materials 38

4.3 Relative Compaction 38

4.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBT) 39


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 39

5.1 conclusions 39

5.2 Recommendation 39




Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one part or place to another. So road transportation is one of the most efficient means of transportation all over the world. 

The efficiency and convenience of transportation of goods and passengers are determined by function of road pavement our daily activities required the movement from one location to another either by one mode of transportation or by combining at different modes of transportation. 

According to Oguara (2010) roads represent the major areas at investment in transportation and are the most dominant travel mode accounting for over 90% of passengers and goods transport in Nigeria road one of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the state of Nigerian roads Ette (2010) states that there was a road not work study that commissioned in 1998/1999. This study cover all inter-urban road which had a traffic of move than 30 vehicle day and a total length of around 53. 00km 

So the way of placing the pavement on the road networks also contribute to the social economic growth and to the development of the communities. Pavements take an important part in over all towns and countries planning. 

Highway engineers have always been trying their best to design construct and maintain high way in Nigeria and beyond but upon all their best and technical know how, the roads are still failing and accommodation series of defect as the days goes by it’s high time to see into the causes and effects these road failures and their result on the uses also the life span at the road so as to fulfill its intending purpose.

Highway maintenance purposely keep pavement in a satisfactory condition so as not to obstruct the traffic flow on the road maintenance of asphalt pavement is referred to as a set of organized activities that carried out in order to keep pavement in its best operational condition with minimum cost required.   

Roads is constructed without any scientific basis will require elaborate maintenance but if they are constructed adopting all the scientific fundamentals even then they require maintenance but to the lesser degree. 

This project is to focus on investigation of pavement failure and their remedial measure on Ganmo- Afon road and possible solution would be provided to correct those failure it will also explain what highway pavement will be included. Ganmo  Road designation are classified into four groups which are:    

(1) Express Road:  These are international roads linking other neighboring countries and inter-states linking man political and commercial centre will high volume capacity for example Lagos to Ibadan express way. 

(2) Truck Road: These are roads in the purposely for heavy traffic charring route between political and economic cities example are Ogbomosho to Ilorin road.

(3) Principal road: These are major roads in the state link important political and industrial together for example Maraba to Kwara State Polytechnic Road. 

(4) Non Principal Road: These are collection road in both urban and rural areas which link important town in local Government area together. Therefore road as a matter of fact must be given an adequate attention to both its design and construction stage in order to accord its engineering purposes. 


One of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the Nigeria roads e.g Natural conditions, traffic conditions, and construction materials are the main causes of soft spots on the earth road edge damage of bituminous pavement, culvert slide down slide ditch erosion, side drain deposition e.t.c.


Investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure Ganmo-Afon Road, Kwara State.

1.4 OBJECTIVES      

1. To take inventory of pavement failure of Ganmo-Afon Road 

2. To investigate into causes of pavement failure at Ganmo-Afon Road.

3. To provide or recommend possible remedies to the problem identified. 

4. To carried out laboratory tests on soils collected from failed portions of the road. 


Major paved roadways have lost their asphaltic surface and are in very poor condition to the extent that they are reverted to gravel roads. Some of the road system is not useable especially in high rainfall duration. 


The scope of this project comprises of causes types and possible solution to pavement failure at Ganmo-Afon.

It also include some laboratory tests and also to know the C.B.R values of the sample abstained from the case study.


This project was carried out at Ganmo-Afon roads, are roads that are from Ganmo Junction straight road that link other town of the road it’s a single carriage highway of about 3.5 wide. It made asphaltic flexible pavement.   


This can be described as the techniques considered to be used in carrying out this project; this project consists of various methods which could be used to carryout the studies required, so as to achieve the aims and objective of this project. The necessary methods are stated below:

(1) Aerial picture on the road:- It involves walking round the whole road to identify and examine the failures and the photography will be taken. 

(2) Soil test:- The soil will be randomly sampled from the point of the failure along the road for the laboratory test to determine optimum moisture contents and maximum dry density (Compaction Test) and C.B.R test.      

(3) Reconnaissance survey:- This will be done by taking a general over view of problem associated to the pavement failure from Ganmo-Afon Road in other to make necessary amendment.      



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