The educational system is a key area where it is possible to intervene and present entrepreneurship as a viable alternative to dependent employment. The support for this view comes from a widely literature review of enterprise, entrepreneurship and business creation. The idea is also present in the European Union recommendations. (see Action plan to promote entrepreneurship and competitiveness – Best action plan and green paper on entrepreneurship) which refers to the promotion of entrepreneurship through the education system from primary school to university as a main goal. 

Recent literature review evaluates or measure the impact of general education on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity suggests some possible generalizations. Evidence suggesting a positive link between education and entrepreneurship is robust. “it is becoming clear that entrepreneurship or certain facet on it can be taught”. Most of the imperical studies indicate that entrepreneurship can be taught, at least encouraged by entrepreneurship education. In addition, the entrepreneurship role can be culturally and experimentally acquired and therefore influenced by education and training. Thus the present educational system should encourage the concept of an enterprise culture.

Works advance the idea that formal entrepreneurship education affects the attitudes of students, influencing them in the direction of future career and affect their propensity for entrepreneurship when they become adults. In this sense, the pedagogical approach should encourage children to make decisions and accept mistakes as part of their learning process, underline the importance to develop a common framework to evaluate, compare and improve the design of educational programs of entrepreneurship. It is important to create the right entrepreneurship environment at the educational institution. Entrepreneurial activities should be integrated into the programmes of the institution from an early stage and need to be supported by school culture. Thus, in entrepreneurship education literature, primary, secondary and tertiary schools have received growing attention and enterprise education programmes in tertiary schools were confirmed to be important for later entrepreneurial intentions. It is believed that the ideal stage to acquire basic knowledge about entrepreneurship and to foster a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship is during childhood and adolescence years.

The knowledge of student’s entrepreneurial characteristics that have more impact on entrepreneurial intentions can be an important contribution for the development of adequate educational programmes related with entrepreneurship and business creation.


It is not an over statement stating that no business start up can strive successfully with out its own teething problems, an so this work enumerated  some of the problems which are paramount to start up intention among the students of higher institutions

1. What is the entrepreneurial intention of students of higher institution?

2. What is the effect of locus of control on the start up intention?

3. Is risk taking behavior related to business start up intention?

4. How much effect does self confidence have on start up intentions?


1. To determine the entrepreneurial intention of students of higher institution

2. To determine the effects of locus of control on the start up intentions of the students

3. To determine the risk taking behaviour related to business start up intentions

4. To determine how much effect does self confidence have on start up intention


The important of this research work is to enable us expose the rudiment and encourage all categories of individuals willing to go into entrepreneurial intention.

It is also important to point out that no company or organization without challenges an so this research work enable us expose some if not all of this challenges facing entrepreneurial intentions and profound possible solutions.

Base on this research work, it will enable us create awareness regarding the various roles of entrepreneurial intention among the start up challenges in the society at large.

Finally, there is a common saying and I quote “knowledge is power” Thus this study can assist in combating un-employment rate in the society interchangeably with employment opportunities for the society at large.


This research work will be limited to the role of locus of control on entrepreneurial intentions among the students of higher institutions.


Baron, R. A. (1998) Cognitive  mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing 13, 275 – 294.

Begley T.P  and D. P. (1987) “Psychological Characteristic Associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller business”, Journal of Business Venturing 2, 79 – 93.

Brockhaus, R. H. (1990) “Risk taking propensity of Entrepreneurs” Academy of Management Journal, 23 (3), 509 – 520.

Brockhaus, R. H. and Hoewitz, P. S. (1986) “The psychology of Entrepreneur”.

Bygrave, W. D. (1989). “The Entrepreneurship paradigm (1): A psychological look at its Research Methodologies” Entrepreneurship: Theory and practice, 14, 7 0 26.


The previous research has investigated the various economic and psychological motivations of individuals to seek self-employment (Banmol, 1990, Eisenhover, 1995, Douglas and Shepherd, 2000). The motivation to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour has generally been investigated in terms of entrepreneurial intentions, with intention conceptualized as being a function of beliefs that in turn can lead to subsequent behaviour. In general, the greater the intention, the stronger is the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour (Ajzen 1991). Numbers of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between an individual’s personal characteristics and subsequent intention (for example, Shapero 1982, Ajzen 1987, Bird, 1988). Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour (1991) suggests three keys attitude that predict intentions, these being attitudes towards the act, social norms and perceived behavioural control. Krueger and Brazeal (1994) suggest that the perceived behavioural control construct overlaps with the self-efficacy construct of Bandura (1986) and outlined a model of potential entrepreneurship that incorporated entrepreneurial intentions, Basing their model on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour and Shapero's model’s of the entrepreneurial event (Shapero, 1982). Their model included the potential for both enterprise development and corporate ventures and was compressed of three constructs beings :

Perceived desirability Perceived feasibility Propensity to act.

The perceived desirability was seen to be related to intrinsic rewards associated with entrepreneurship and includes the attitude towards the act and social norms. (Kreuger and Brazeal (1994). Perceived desirability is related to the motivational factors to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour and can therefore be considered a function of entrepreneurial attitude held by the individuals. Perceived feasibility on the other hands, is related to individual perceptions of their ability to implement the required behaviour Krueger (1993), cites persuasive evidence, that perceived credibility, perceived desirability and prosperity to act explain over half the variance in intentions towards entrepreneurship, with feasibility perceptions being the most influential’s. An alternative model of entrepreneurial intentions was proposed by Bird (1988). Based on established theory in cognitive psychology, the model suggest that an individuals entrepreneurial intentions is based on a combination of personal contextual factors, personal factors includes prior experience as an entrepreneur, personal characteristics and abilities while contextual factors consists of social, political and economic variables. An individual’s intention is further structured by both rational and analytic thinking (goal-directed behaviour and intuitive or holistic thinking (vision). Boyd and Vozikis (1994) expand on this model to incorporate the perceived behavioural control aspect of Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour through the inclusion of the concept of self-efficacy. Perceived behavioural control describes the perceived ease or difficulty of performing behaviour and as pointed out by Ajzen’s (1991) is closely related to the concept of self-efficacy. They also proposed self-efficacy as an important explanatory variable in determining the strength entrepreneurial intentions and the likelihood that those intentions will result in entrepreneurial actions. The reversed model of Boyd and Vozikis (1994) based on Bird’s (1998) model suggest that intentions are a function of self efficacy in addition to attitudes and perceptions regarding the creation of a new venture through rational and intuitive thought processes. 2.2   LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION Locus of control is the degree in which the individual believes that the reinforcements are dependent on his behaviour. This individual believes that the accomplishment of goal or purpose depends on his own ability and actions rather than luck or other people’s efforts (Kuip and overhaul, 2003). The empirical evidence shows that small business entrepreneurs are more oriented at the internal level than population in general (Ket Vries, 1977, Begley and Boyd, 1987, Beverland and Lockshin 2001). Brockhaus (1980) longitudinal study suggests the existence of a positive correlation between orientation to locus of control and entrepreneurial success. In another study Brockhaus and Horwitz (1986) reinforce that locus of control could distinguish entrepreneurs who are successful from those who are unsuccessful. Robinson et al (1991) state that internal control leads to a positive entrepreneurial attitude and most students who receive entrepreneurial formation may develop a higher level of control and self-efficiency.

2.3    RISK TAKING AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS        This variable refers to risk acceptance when entering an activity, that is, it is related to the probability of an activity having less than 100% success (Kuip and Verheul, 2003). Even if risk-taking is often mentioned as a determinant of entrepreneurial intention, several empirical studies suggest that small business entrepreneurs do not have a positive attitude towards risk and they do not consider themselves as risk-takers, (Baron, 1998) nor do they seen to differ from other groups, in more objectives test on risk-taking (Brockhaus), (1980). according to Mc Clelland (1961) and Bellu (1988) Entrepreneurs seem slightly less attracted to take risks in situations known as pure shift games. Entrepreneur risk-taking may be specific or monetary. Davidsson (1989) asserts that if the aspirations are sufficient accomplished. Entrepreneurs may simply stop taking risks. However, risk-taking and acceptance of uncertainty is something that can be slowly modified if desired. Thus, it is still not clear in literature if there is a relationship between risk-taking propensity and Entrepreneurial intention neither the nature of such relationship.

2.4    SELF-CONFIDENCE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION The high level of self confidence has been suggested by many studies as an entrepreneur’s standard characteristic. In reality, this characteristic emerges constantly in a compilation of empirical studies states by Davidsson (1989). Ho and Kol (1992) refers that self confidence is an entrepreneurial characteristic and that it is relate to other psychological characteristics, such as Locus of control, propensity to take risk and Tolerance of ambiguity. Robinson et al, (1991) have found entrepreneur to have a higher degree to self-confidence relative to non-entrepreneurs. 




RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing