This study examined “IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCES OF AN ORGANISATION,” 30 questionnaires were administered to the workers of Coca Cola Nigeria Plc, using chi-square to test the research hypothesis. The findings revealed that quality control increases product development. It was therefore recommended that all manufacturing industries should adapt to the basic and techniques of TQM for them to be able to attained their functional objectives. During the course of findings, it was revealed that product quality is one crucial driver of customer loyalty and there is a significant relationship between the quality terms of durability, reparability and other features and loyalty of its users.  Conclusively it was deduced that product quality is a strong factor that lead to brand loyalty when customers judged the product has having very high or high quality in the Coca Cola Nigeria Plc.



Title Page                                                                                 1

Abstract                                                                                   2

Table of Content                                                                       3


1.1 Background of Study                                                          4

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                    8

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study                                        9

1.4 Research Questions                                                            9

1.5 Research Hypothesis                                                          10

1.6 Scope of the Study                                                              11

1.7 Limitations of the Study                                                     12

1.8 Significance of the Study                                                    12

1.9 Definitions of Terms                                                           13


2.0 Introduction                                                                       15

2.1 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework                              15

2.2 Brief History of Total Quality Management                          17

2.3 History of Shell                                                                   25


3.1 Introduction                                                                       28

3.2 Populations of the Study                                                     28

3.3 Research Instrument                                                          28

3.4 Data Analysis                                                                     29

3.5 Problems of Data Collection                                                29


4.1 Introduction                                                                       31

4.2 Respondent Characteristics and Classification                    31



5.1 Introduction                                                                       49

5.2 Summary of Findings                                                         49

5.3 Conclusions                                                                       49

5.4 Recommendations                                                              50

5.5 Suggestions and Findings                                                   51

References                                                                       52

Questionnaire                                                                  54




Edwards (2010) describe Total Quality Management (TQM) as a management tool in which its basis is to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or service process, increases the customer satisfaction, streamline supply chain management and aim for modernization of equipment and ensure that workers have the highest level of training.

Olamade (2000) describes that one of the principal aims of TQM is to limit errors to the barest minimum during production of a production and service and that TQM is often associated with the development, deployment and maintenance of organizational systems that are required for various business processes.

Total quality management (TQM) has been acknowledged as an important subject in management theory and practice during the last decades. The use of TQM among many, western organizations has been relatively high during the 1990s, see for example, Lawler et al. (2011). However, the relationship between TQM practices and improved financial performance is discussed frequently in the TQM literature. Results have been published, which argue that TQM investments result in an improved financial performance, see, for instance, Shetty (2003), Hendricks and Singhal (2007), Easton and Jarrell (2008), Handsfield et al. (2008), Samson and Terziovski (2009), Reed et al. (2000), Allen and Kilmann (2001), Tena et al. (2001) and Wroistad and Krueger (2001). Bergquist and Ramsing (2009) argue, on the other hand, that it is difficult to establish a relationship between TQM and the performance of the company. Results have also been published, presenting a more negative picture of TQM implementation benefits. Eskildson (2004) states, based on survey results, that many organizations do not succeed with their TQM efforts. The two main reasons are here argued to be vague definitions of TQM and inappropriate implementation. Also, Harari (2003) argues, based on own experience, that TQM programs are ineffective, and that at best one third of the TQM programs have achieved significant improvements.

The differentiation among research conducted, to outline financial benefits of TQM implementation, imply that the area needs further investigation. The approaches used to determine the benefits of TQM programs, and to find a relationship between TQM and the financial performance, also differ between the different studies. One approach to measure the effects of TQM investment on financial performance is to compare companies that have received a quality award against companies that have not received any quality award, see, for example, Hendricks and Singhal (2007). These two researchers use American companies in order to measure the effects of successful TQM implementations on financial performance. The approach to study the performance development of quality award recipients has not been used, according to extensive literature, on Swedish quality award recipients. Such a study would be a complement to earlier studies, also considering the facts that Sweden and the USA have different company cultures and that the award models are somewhat different.

As many still argue whether TQM programs are profitable, the purpose of this study is to form an opinion if companies in Nigeria that successfully have implemented TQM have better performance development than median branch indices and their stated competitors.


Although there are many success stories of TQM implementation and its benefits, the real impact of TQM cannot be disregarded (Crosby, 1979; Juran, 1988; FQI, 1990,1991; Number of and Abrams, 1994; Rarnberg, 1994; Hill and Wilkinson, 1995 Mann and Kehoe, 1995; Ross, 1999; Evan and Lindsay, 2001). A number of failures have also been reported (e.g. Eskildson, 1995a; Harari, 1993), for example, Eskildson (1995) argues that TQM does not provide either a cure-all nor is it a single key to organizational success. He provides several examples one of which was the bankruptcy of the Wallace Company (one of the winners of the MBNQA) after receiving an award. The bankruptcy of the MBNQA winner to the unsustainable loss resulted from the high spending on quality (Hill, 1993). Therefore, the collapse of the company may indicate an ineffectiveness of the management system.

So also TQM implementation requires radical change to traditional management practices. For instance, traditional management paradigm stresses authorisationism. Therefore, even though managers may support the principle of employee participation and input, they are uneasy about giving up their authority (McConnell, 1995). The development of an effective work team may be problematic in organizational cultures where human resource systems emphasise individual performance reviews and compensation (Weidman, 1993). Despite the criticism, neither academics nor practitioners dispute the fact that the quality movement has been the most influential of all


The aims and objectives of the study are as follows:

-              To determine whether innovation has effect on productivity

-              To determine whether quality control has effect on product development.

-              To evaluate whether scope of work has effect on customer satisfaction.


  • The research questions for the study are as follows;
  • Does productivity has effect on new innovation?
  • What is the effect of quality control on product development?
  • Does scope of work has effect on customer satisfaction?


Three research hypotheses are to be carried out during the course of study which is as follows;

  1. 1.        Null hypothesis (HO)

Productivity does not have effect on new innovation.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

Productivity has effect on new innovation.

  1. 2.          Null Hypothesis (HO)

Quality control does not enhance product development.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

Quality control enhances product development.

3.     Null Hypothesis (H0)

Scope of work does not increases customer satisfaction.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

Scope of work does help to increases customer satisfaction.


This study was carried out in various sub-departments in top quality management department located at Marina, Lagos with their various top quality managers, customer’s managers and their management team.

Every organizations and manufacturing company cannot do without employing the efficient techniques and approaches of total quality management, thus that TQM helps the organization in achieving their basic and corporate goals and objectives. The approaches of TQM meets not only consumers specification but other quality and functionality expectation in terms of weight, reliability, size, maintainability and operating cost effectiveness, moreover its approaches is to reduce errors produced during the manufacturing processes increases productivity, improve customers satisfaction enhances profitability and increases sales turnover.

As we have observed according to Edwards W. (1990) TQM enhances performance superiority and continuous improvement of quality of products and services.


A need for Total Quality Management (TQM) normally arises where there is a marked deviation from the actual quality performance and standard.

Therefore some of the constraints engaged in the course of the research work are financial constraints, lack of data on the use of Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, unwillingness of the respondents to complete questionnaire logically and inability of the respondents to return questionnaire on time duly completed.


A need for Total Quality Management (TQM) normally arises where there is a marked deviation from the actual Quality performance and standard. The need for the study is to ensure that errors are limited with an organization in order to render a quality services to the customers and a society at large; ensure that consumers specification and functional requirements expectation are met; to maintain operating cost efficiently and to reduce the errors are limited with an organization in order to render a quality services to the customers and a society at large; ensure that consumers specification and functional requirements expectation are met; to maintain operating cost efficiently and to reduce the errors produced during manufacturing and modernization of equipments to ensure workers have the highest level of training.


TQM (Total Quality Management): This is a management technique to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or service process thus deals with quality prevention and correction.

Organizational performance: This is a rapid change in an organization to achieve the basic goals and objective such as customer’s satisfaction, productivity, sales turnover, profitability etc

Quality: This deals with character and attribute of a product and service that makes the product or service: different form each other,

Risk: This refers to as a degree of uncertainty from a specific outcome

Productivity: This refers to as the improvement in the level of production.

Cost: This refers to the amount of money needed to produce a product thus price to be paid. It can also be describe as something of value.

Profitability: This is the ability of a company to earn a profit it result the final result of business organization

Customers’ satisfaction: this refers to as a degree to which customers expectations of a service or product

Innovations” This can be describe as an incremental emergent or radical and revolutionary charges in thinking product process or organization

Sales turnover: This can be describe as a total amount sold within a specified period usually a year


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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