The study concerns how the KEKE NAPEP programme of Federal Government Poverty Eradication Programmes has fared in alleviating poverty among youths in Ojokoro Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Poverty rate occasioned by unemployment has consumed a frighten dimension in Nigeria. This prompted the Federal Government of Nigeria in 2000 to set up National Poverty Eradication Programme by introducing the famous tricycle "Keke Marwa" to alleviate the suffering of the unemployed youth.

The purpose of the study concern.

1.       To examine the impact of  KEKE NAPEP.

2.       To examine how far it has truly alleviate poverty among the youth.

3.       To examine the operational difficulties encountered by the operators and the possible ways of alleviating to those problems.

4.       To see whether cost of maintenance, registration etc in a major obstacle to the successful operation of KEKE NAPEP.

5.       To equally examine the ownership structure, mode of purchase and how much they make daily.

A total of one hundred questionnaires was desired and administered to operators in Ojokoro area council of Lagos State and the result analysed.



1.1      Introduction.

1.2     Statement of Problem

1.3     Statement of Hypothesis

1.4     Justification of the Study

1.5     Objective of the Study


2.1      Literature Review

2.2      Measuring Poverty: Minimum Acceptable Standards

2.3      Poverty as a Relative Phenomenon

2.4      Poverty a Non Static Condition

2.5      The Human Poverty Index

2.6      Empirical Review

2.7      From Poverty Alleviation To Poverty Eradication

2.8      Role of Transportation and various Policies in Poverty Alleviation

          In Nigeria


3.1      Sampling Technique

3.2      Research Instrument

3.3      Study Area

3.4      Method of Data Analysis


4.1      Presentation of Bio data

4.2      Operations of Keke Napep

4.3      Cost of operating Keke Napep

4.4      Results of Hypotheses Tests


5.1      Conclusion

5.2 `    Recommendation




Poverty, as of its multidimensional nature, does not lend itself to easy definition.  Poverty is also a relative concept involving the individual perception of his/her social standing in relation to others in a given society. Such idea informs the stand of those economists who believe that poverty cannot be measured.  Okoh, (1998).

However, different researchers have tried to define poverty. For instance, Ravallion and Bidani (1994) refer to poverty as a lack of command over basic consumption needs that are a situation of inadequate level of command over basic rise to insufficient food, clothing and shelter. Aluko N.L. (1975), Sen N.L. (1987) defined poverty as a lack of certain capabilities such as being able to participate with dignity in societal endeavors.

Poverty has also been defined as the inability to attain a minimum standard of living.  World Development Report,( 1990).

Definition a poor person A poor person is considered as one without job, who canno help himself or cater for his family, who has no money, farm or business. Adolescent males and females are poor if they have no parent, no education, no good food, clothes and health. A poor person is described as one who is undernourished and aging fast, one without self confidence, looks dirty and lives in filthy environment, one who cannot cater for his family, train his children in the school and unable to pay medical bill (The World Bank, 1992)

The major category of people vulnerable to poverty are women and children, majority of whom live in the rural areas, or migrate from rural areas with cannot fit into many of the urban jobs. Aina and Odebiyi (1997) attributed urban poverty to high rate of urbanization, accompanied with high rate of migration, population density, high rate of population growth, the unemployment, inflation and bad governance (such that urban centres in Nigeria generally lack basic social infrastructures to meet the needs of the teaming population.

Poverty becomes widespread in Nigeria after the implementation of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in Nigeria. When Babangida seized the government from Buhari, the former agreed to implement the International Monetary Fund (IMF) conditionality because poverty had become glaring in Nigeria most especially among the rural dwellers leading to rural-urban migration. It is in record that Babangida wasted more than 100 billion Naira on phantom projects, D.O. Elumilade, (2006). These projects included the one initiated by his wife, Better Life progammes for the poor, DEFRI, People's Bank of Nigeria, two democratic transition experiments and other big time corruption in Babangida regime enriched themselves D.O. Elumilade, (2006).

Poverty in Nigeria cuts across different strata of the society in all the thirty six states and Abuja the FCT of the country. However, the position of Lagos state as the former capital of Nigeria as well as the commercial nerve centre of the country made the problem to be more pronounced. Lagos poses as an attraction various rural settlements in Nigeria; particularly the youths who see Lagos as a place full of economical opportunities.

However, the excessive influx of people from all parts of the country into Lagos over the last y affected the economy distribution of wealth, resources and infrastructures.  This has created a form of economic imbalance whereby the available wealth, resources and infrastructures appear to be distributed among the influential and the elites in the society.

A major manifestation of poverty in the state is seen in crime rate, malnutrition, large number of street urchins (Area boys) and the establishment of many slums in and around the Lagos metropolis by people who cannot afford to get good shelter for themselves. Some of these slums include: the Maroko, Ajegunle and Mushin to mention but a few. Condition of living in these settlements are so bad that those people cannot afford the basic need such as good food, good shelter, good clothing etc. People in these settlements also lack access to basic infrastructures  such as road, good education, good medical facilities among other things.  Another manifestation of poverty is seen in the over stretched usage of the available resources like roads, health care facilities, power (electrical installations), water, transport system etc. A very important resultant effect of poverty or economy imbalance in Lagos is seen in the breeding of touts and miscreants popularly known as ‘Agbero' or "Omoota" i.e. Motor Park touts. These people are so ruthless in their conducts that they constitute major threat to the peace and safety as well as the security of lives and property in the state.

Poverty has many root causes, while it is primarily related to very low income earners; is in many dimensions especially in malnutrition, ill health and illiteracy.


The persistence of massive poverty in Nigeria has created myriads of social maladies and security challenges.  There is no doubt that there are some factors within the poor that are responsible for this morally unconscionable plague. Hitherto obvious lack of concerted institutional and policy framework in Nigeria to tackle the scourge of poverty constituted a major challenge. It is on the bases of these facts this research is designed to provide solution to the following questions:

1.       What are the effects of poverty on the urban dwellers?

2.       What is the relationship between keke NAPEP initiative and poverty reduction among operators?

3.       Are there any factors militating against the success of keke NAPEP in poverty alleviation?

4.       What are the durability and efficiency as well as overall maintenance implication     of keke NAPEP?

5.       What are the contributory effects of road network, traffic and transport officials of keke NAPEP?


The following hypothesis will be tested at 0.5 significance:

  1. Keke NAPEP has significantly reduced poverty among its operators.
  2. Keke NAPEP is not expensive to maintain and operate.
  3. Road network has no significant influence on keke NAPEP operation.
  4. There is no significant relationship between traffic and profitability.


The issue of poverty among the Nigeria population is a very important one.  It significant reduction is a task that the past and present government have continue to address by coming up with different programmes and strategies.  One of such programmes is KEKE NAPEP which was introduced more than 10 years.  This study is necessary in order to know the programme has performed in term of poverty alleviation.

The findings of this study are expected to determine the achievement or problem(s) being encountered by the programme in the study area in order to come up with appropriate solution.


The broad objective of the study is to examine the impact of KEKE NAPEP as poverty alleviation strategy in Ojokoro Local Government Area of Lagos State.  The specific objectives are:

(i)       To determine if there is improvement in the economic well-being of the operators in the study area or not.

(ii)      To determine the suitability of working environment for KEKE NAPEP in the study area.

(iii)     To determine whether the average revenue of operators is influenced by the period of operation or not.

(iv)     To identify the various costs incurred by the operators in the study area.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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