The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning “to move”. In this context, motivation represents “those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed” Terence Mitchell (1997). Managers need to understand these psychological processes if they are to successfully guide employees toward accomplishing organizational objectives. Let examines the historical roots of motivational concepts.

The concept of motivation is based on the idea that every human experience involves a causation factor and an effect from that cause. One authority maintains that there are seven essential causes. These are: (i) The urge arising from bodily needs; (ii) The urge to succeed and achieve; (iii) The urge to avoid failure and disappointment; (iv) The urge for recognition and approval; (v) The urge for security, (vi) The urge to experience something new and different; and (vii) The sex urge. The manager must be aware of these motivating forces and should use the knowledge of these forces in carrying out his assignments. 

The concept of motivation centres on the idea that motivation is shown by a change in behaviours as a result of experience. The manager must know the various elements of human behaviour, which are the foundations of motivation. There are seven aspects of motivation advanced psychologists. These are: (i) situation, (ii) personal characteristics, (iii) goals, (iv) interpretation, (v) action, (vi) consequence, and (vii) reaction to thwarting.

The seven aspects function as individuals strive for goal attainment. Earlier experience has prepared the individual on certain ways to be personally ready for new experiences when new situations are presented, the person will interpret this new situation and respond in such a way based on the consequence that he has experienced in similar situations in the past. Previous consequences, in similar situations will bring personal goals closer and, as a result, increase personal readiness to accept the new situation. Favourable consequences do not always result and, when this occurs, the individual’s effort is said to be thwarted for lack of goal attainment.

The manager must focus on teaching employees to accept and operate new procedures in such a way that none of them feelthwarted. He must also be realistic enough to know that this ideal cannot always be attained and should give enough thought to  ways that might turn employees away from non-adaptive behaviour.

Apart from motivation and organizational performances, the organization needs to be able to evaluate effectively the employees who operating the work under review. The types of people that will be needed in the revised operation must be envisioned. Extensive job analysis, supported by appropriate job descriptions, must be obtained for the old and new operations. He also has to judge the limits occasioned by personal restraint based on the analysis. It is impossible to operate favourably without people having most of the requisite abilities.


Every research is aimed at providing solution to an identified problem, the following problems are identify with employee motivation on organizational performance.

Supervision. To decrease demotivation in this area, you must begin by making wise decisions when you appoint someone to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It requires leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly.

Salary. The old adage “you get what you pay for” tends especially to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employee, but they do want to be paid fairly.

Interpersonal relations. Remember that part of the motivation of being employed is the social contact it brings, so allow employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g., over lunch, during breaks, between customers). This will help them develop a sense of camaraderie and teamwork. At the same time, you should crack down on rudeness, inappropriate behaviour and offensive comments. If an individual continues to be disruptive, take charge of the situation, perhaps by dismissing him or her from the practice.   


The objectives of this study are as follows:

a.       To identify the factors that motivate  employee of Ethiopian airlines  

b.       To examine the effect of these factors on organizational performance.   

c.       To identify the factors that  demotivate employees of Ethiopian airlines. 

d.       To  identify other factors that influence organizational performance of Ethiopian airlines.


During the course of the research, the following are likely questions that needed proper attention:  

a.       What are the factors that motivate employees of Ethiopian airlines?  

b.       What are the factors that effect the performance of Ethiopian airlines? 

c.       How to identify the factors that demotivate the employees  of Ethiopian airlines?

d.       How to identify other factors that influence organization performance at Ethiopian airlines?  


This study aims at examining the effects of employee motivation on organizational performance at Ethiopian airlines.  The study was undertaken in a very critical manner in order to ascertain the professional effects of employee motivation on organizational performance.

The following Hypotheses were tested:

HO:    Our incentives push us to perform our jobs efficiently 

H1:     Our incentives do not push us to perform our jobs efficiently

HO:    Leadership in Ethiopian airlines enhances profitability  

H1:     Leadership in Ethiopian airlines does not enhances profitability

HO:    Promotion in Ethiopian airlines enhances low labour turnover    

H1:     Promotion in Ethiopian airlines does not enhances low labour turnover

HO:    Performance recognition in Ethiopian airlines increases efficiency  

H1:     Performance recognition in Ethiopian airlines does not  increases efficiency


The following terms are defined as they appear in these study:

(a)        Motivation: It refers to the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal directed behaviour.

(b)        Service: This is a system that provided what the public needs, organized by the government or a private organization or company.

(c)        Efficiency: This indicates the extent to which the organization produces a given output with the least possible use of the resources.(project topics   final year project topics )

(d)        Effectiveness: This means achieving results.

(e)        Productivity: This is the ratio of output to input be it labour or other resources.

(f)         Quality: (i) Meeting concrete demands and expectations e.g. Time, quality specifications, finances, defect rates, functions and safety guarantee.

          (ii) Meeting emotional expectation and desires e.g. attitudes, commitments, behaviour, attention, loyalty, credibility, consistency.

(g) Environment: The condition that affect the behaviour and           development of the organism.

(h)     Finance: This indicates the money used to run a business, an            activity or a project.   

(i)       Mechanism: This means a system or method for achieving a           particular goal or goals.

1.7.       SCOPE OF STUDY

The central aim of this research study is to identify, highlight and analyze the relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance.

Moreover, the scope of the project will cover virtually the problems militating against employee motivation on organizational performance with specific reference or emphasis on Ethiopian airlines. These problems are enormous, but this paper will limit itself to ones identified in the sector spanning over the period of four years from 2005  to 2009.


In carrying out a proper and thorough research the understated constraints were experience.

Such as epileptic supply of electricity, the reluctance attitude of the respondents, transport fare, finance constraints, accessibility to the relevant information through website, time factor as a result of commitments to the researchers  lectures, family problems, his  job and some communication problems.     


Asika, N (1991): Research Methodology in the Behavioural sciences.

Becker, H.S (1960): Notes on the Concept of Commitment. American       Journal of Sociology,

Fajana, S (1997): Multiple Choice Tests in Human Resource Management.

Hertzberg, F (1950): Notes on Job Motivation and Satisfaction. American    Journal 

Porter, LW et all (1976): Organizational motivation and Managerial     Turnover. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance.

Steers, R.M (1977): Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Motivation.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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