EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT


EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT  

ABSTRACT

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Roselle) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams, beverages and used traditionally as a medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments.The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on male rat reproductive hormones.Twenty (20) male wistar rat weighing 0.25±0.2 kg   were grouped into one water control group and three experimental groups. While the water control group received 1.0 ml of water for 28 days, the experimental group were administered 250 mg/kg oral doses of aqueous extract of H.sabdariffa calyx. The effect on the basal levels of follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol were conducted in experimental animals.The 28 days oral administration of aqueous extract of H.sabdariffa L. is associated with a decreased circulating plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone, Testosterone and prolactin in male wistar rat compared with the control group. The study did not show a change in the plasma levels of both circulating luteinizing hormone and estradiol following 28 days oral administration of H.sabdariffa calyx to the experimental animal. Moreover, Marked histological changes were detected on testes of the experimental animals after 28 days of administration.This may indicate that H.sadariffa calyx extract can cause both morphological and physiological testicular damage.The study concluded that H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page-

Title page- - - - - - - - - - - i

Certification- - - - - - - - - - - ii

Dedication- - - - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgement- - - - - - - - - - iv

Table of Content- - - - - - - - - - v

List of Tables- - - - - - - - - - - vii

List of Plates- - - - - - - - - - - viii

List of Figures- - - - - - - - - - ix

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - xi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - - - 1

1.1 Literature Review- - - - - - - - - 2

1.1.2    Economic importance of Hibiscus sabdariffa - - - - - 5

1.1.3. Phytochemistry - - - - - - - - - 8

1.1.4 Biological and pharmacological activities - - - - - 16

1.1.5   Safety - - - - - - - - - - 29

1.1.6. Toxicology - - - - - - - - - 30

1.1.7. Interactions - - - - - - - - - 33

1.1.8. Anatomy of the male rat testes - - - - - - - 35

1.1.9. Reproductive hormones - - - - - - - 40

CHAPTER TWO

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1   MATERIALS - - - - - - - - - 50

2.2   METHODS - - - - - - - - - 51

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  RESULTS - - - - - - - - 61

3.1 Histological Examination of Male rat testes - - - - - 62

CHAPTER FOUR

DISCUSSION AND CONCCLUSION - - - - - - 66

CONCLUSION - - - - - - - - 68

References - - - - - - - - 69

Appendix _ - - - - - - - 100

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that have the ability within the body to alter endocrine functions often through mimicking or blocking endogenous hormones (James et al., 2013). These actions on the endocrine system have resulted in developmental deficits in various invertebrate and aquatic species (Crain et al., 2007; Elango et al., 2006) and mammals (Christopher et al., 2012). Exposures in adulthood have consequences but fetal and early life exposures appear to have more severe effects that persist through life (Rubin and Soto, 2009). Among these classes of chemicals are phytoestrogens that show effects suggestive of estrogenicity, such as binding to the estrogen receptors, induction of specific estrogen-responsive gene products, stimulation of estrogen receptor(s) and positive breast cancer cell growth (James et al., 2013). Through these interactions by acting as agonists or antagonists, EDCs are able to alter the activity of response elements of genes, block natural hormones from binding to their receptors, or in some cases increase the perceived amount of endogenous hormone in the body by acting as a hormone mimic to its receptor (Ze-hua et al., 2010). 

 

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Roselle) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams, and beverages (Sirag et al., 2013). The brilliant red color of its calyx makes it a valuable food product, apart from its multitude of traditional medicinal uses (Sirag et al., 2013). Infusions of the calyces are considered as diuretic, choleric, febrifugal and hypotensive, decreasing the viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis (Salleh et al., 2002). Roselle calyx extract is a good source of antioxidants from its anthocyanins and associated with antitumor and inhibitory effects on the growth of several cancer cells (Ajiboye et al., 2011).

Extracts of H.sabdariffa calyces have been reported to be rich in phytoestrogens (Adigun et al., 2006; Orisakwe et al., 2004; Brian et al., 2009; Omotuyi et al., 2011) and some reports indicated that H.sabdariffa calyces have estrogenic effects, although exact estrogen-like ingredient is not determined (Ali et al., 1989).

This study was undertaken to determine to which extent H.sabdariffa calyces extract alters the basal levels of selected reproductive hormones: Follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, and luteinizing hormone as well as the histological features male Wistar rat testes.

1.1     Literature Review

H.sabdariffa L.

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. also known as roselle, is an ideal crop for developing countries as it is relatively easy to grow, can be grown as part of multi-cropping systems and can be used as food and fibre (Da-costa-Rocha et al., 2014). In China the seeds are used for their oil and the plant is used for its medicinal properties, while in West Africa the leaves and powdered seeds are used in meals (Da-costa-Rocha et al., 2014). Additionally, it is used in the pharmaceutical and food industries (Da-costa-Rocha et al., 2014).

A limited number of reviews on H.sabdariffa have been conducted. Only one detailed review on the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of H.sabdariffa ( Ali et al., 2005) and two more focused, later reviews are available: One on the effectiveness of H.sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension ( Wahabi et al., 2010) and another on the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia ( Hopkins et al., 2013).

1.1.1. Botanical description

The genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) includes more than 300 species of annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees (Wang et al., 2012). H.sabdariffa (syn.: Abelmoschus cruentus (Bertol.) Walp., Furcaria sabdariffa Ulbr., Hibiscus cruentus Bertol., Hibiscus fraternus L., Hibiscus palmatilobus Baill. and Sabdariffa rubra Kostel ( The Plant list, 2010) is commonly known as roselle, hibiscus, Jamaica sorrel or red sorrel (English) and in Arabic, karkadeh ( Ali et al., 2005 ; Ross, 2003). Its native distribution is uncertain, some believe that is from India or Saudi Arabia ( Ismail, Ikram, and Nazri, 2008), while Murdock ( Murdock, 1959) showed evidence that H.sabdariffa was domesticated by the black populations of western Sudan (Africa) sometime before 4000 BC. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated in both tropical and subtropical regions (Morton, 1987 and USDA, 2007) including India, Saudi Arabia, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Vietnam, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria and México (Chewonarin et al., 1999; Dung et al., 1999; Eslaminejad and Zakaria, 2011; Ismail et al., 2008; Mahran et al., 1979; Rao, 1996; Sharaf, 1962 and Yagoub Ael et al., 2004).

There are two main varieties of H.sabdariffa, the first being H.sabdariffa var. altissima Wester, cultivated for its jute-like fibre and the second is H.sabdariffa var. sabdariffa. The second variety includes shorter bushy forms, which have been described as races: bhagalpuriensi, intermedius, albus and ruber. The first variety has green, red-streaked, inedible calyces, while the second and third race have yellow-green edible calyces (var. ruber) and also yield fibre (Morton, 1987).

1.1.1.2.Morphology

H.sabdariffa var. sabdariffa ruber is an annual, erect, bushy, herbaceous subshrub that can grow up to 8 ft (2.4 m) tall, with smooth or nearly smooth, cylindrical, typically red stems. The leaves are alternate, 3 to 5 in (7.5–12.5 cm) long, green with reddish veins and long or short petioles. The leaves of young seedlings and upper leaves of older plants are simple; lower leaves are deeply 3 to 5 or even 7 lobed; the margins are toothed. Flowers, borne singly in the leaf axils, are up to 5 in (12.5 cm) wide, yellow or buff with a rose or maroon eye, and turn pink as they wither at the end of the day. At this time, the typically red calyx, consisting of 5 large sepals with a collar (epicalyx) of 8 to 12 slim, pointed bracts (or bracteoles) around the base, begins to enlarge, becomes fleshy, crisp but juicy, 1 1/4 to 2 1/4 in (3.2–5.7 cm) long and fully encloses the velvety capsule, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25–2 cm) long, which is green when immature, 5-valved, with each valve containing 3 to 4 kidney-shaped, light-brown seeds, 1/8 to 3/16 in (3–5 mm) long and minutely downy. The capsule turns brown and splits open when mature and dry. The calyx, stems, and leaves are acid and closely resemble the cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) in flavor (Morton, 1987; Ross, 2003).

.

EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.