THE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA
This extended essay aims to appraise the importance of financial institution in the development of small scale industries in Nigeria. The aim is to ascertain the importance of financial institution and how these financial institution support the growth and development of small scale industry. And the problems of small scale industries that makes them efficient and how they are solve through the hedge provided by financial institution through quality loan at subsidies rate, insurance etc. It is necessary to give financial support to small scale business because of their great function they perform in the economy. Finally, the extended essay do not down that the content of this essay will eliminate all the problem that small scale business has been facing. Its however, hoped that the department will take cognizance of some of this essay and on them accordingly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Essay 1
1.2 Objective of the Essay 4
1.3 Significance of the Essay 5
1.4 Scope and Limitation 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Literature review 8
2.1 Small scale enterprises defined 8
2.2 Characteristics of small business enterprise
to the economy 13
2.3 Contribution of small scale industries to economy 15
2.4 Problems of small business 16
2.5 Function of financial institution 21
2.6 Lending policies of commercial banks 22
CHAPTER THREE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
3.0 Introduction 27
3.1 Summary of findings 27
3.2 Conclusions 29
3.3 Recommendations 29
Bibliography 33CHAPTER ONE
This chapter defined the meaning of financial institution, how they perform their function on the small scale industries and how they help them to regulate their business. It tells us the meaning of the small scale industries and the historical background of the small sale industries how they perform their function in the development of the Nigeria economy.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Its due to mention the ways of entering into business venture by bringing already established business while the other way is to start a new business. In other case, the entrepreneur need some prior business depends on answering the following question correctly:
a) Do I have the financial requirement of the business intended to establish?
b) Where can I obtain the finance need for the establishment?
c) The availability of collateral securities to obtain loan from banks.
d) What is my financial record with banks?
e) What type of business ownership do I involve myself?
f) Do I have the experience for the management of my business?
g) How large is the business going to be?
Your answer should be useful in determining how much working capital you will need. Its most people apply the term small scale business to be the local corner delegestore, bakers shop, road side machine etc. this may be accurate enough for general use since small firms operation on this scale in Nigeria.
But most of this small business fold up even before they gain acceptance some if the problem that could course business failure whether it is necessary for someone to go into business are –
i. Lack of Finance – Due to the fact that finance are needed for initial capital as well working capital. It is necessary to have enough finance to enable the business to give a better stand due to lacks of collateral security to obtain loan from the banks lead to the failure of some business.
ii. Managerial Ability – Some entrepreneur have now managerial ability that is they have low future vision which make business to collapse.
iii. Going into business with little or no Experience.
iv. Lack of Research – Planning in without first resting the trouble water or a small scale.
v. Failure to keep complete and accurate records which the business will require to successful operations.
vi. Failure to understand changing economic conditions. Due to my observation the major problems of small scale business is of finance. Because of lack of finance many business have died with their aims and objectives without creating and impacts and the society through the establishment of financial institutions some of the problems have being solved.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
All researchers of project without aim and objectives will be meaningless. The aims of this extended essay is to find out the role of the financial institution in the development of Nigeria economy and to create awareness of sub-sector. The study will also find out what contributed to the general failure of the small scale business and what are the solution to the problems in term of financial economic sector and personal effect.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
i. The significance of this essay is to serve as a reference point to the researchers, caption of industries government as well as students who are intended in knowing the importance of financial institution in the development of small scale industries.
ii. The researchers have acquired information about what small scale industries is, the importance and the problem associated with small scale industries in Nigeria.
iii. Another significance of this research work is to encourage small scale industries on how to promote the business.
iv. It also serve as a reference to the researcher that discover the ways in which government contribute immensely for the development of small scale industries.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The researcher would focused on the study of small scale industries in Nigeria i.e. problem facing the sector are of the constraint was that of time to scope with both class work and that of project work. As a result of that, time was shared between class works and project research works. Since project limiting is not the course that quantify the research for the reward of national diploma in business studies.
Also lacks of financial resource serves as one of the limitation in carrying out this research. The cost of transportation and other expensive activities undertaken in carrying out this future studies on the subject.
More so without financial support from the government there is no way that small scale industries can progress.
SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES DEFINED
Small scale business companies of different definitions depending on the environment cannot be one of the standard definition for small scale business. According to the federal ministry of industry act (FMI) (1979-2) small scale business consist of any business with total capital investment of two million naira (N2,000,000) with a number of employees not more than fifty (50).
The central banks of Nigeria (CBN) act January – march 1994 also define small scale business as any business enterprise with total or annual turn-over not exceeding five million naira or below hundred naira. Committee for economic development of USA (CED) considered a small scale business when at least two of the following characteristics prevailed:
Managers are often the owner. Capital is furnished by one individual owner or a small group Area of operation is local The business is small in comparison with larger competitors in the industry.
Putting the characteristics together, a small business can be self managed and if related to small in size and when considered as part of industries. World bank defined small scale enterprise as any on going concern whose total capital investment does not exceed N300,000. Government credit accordingly to plateau state ministry of industry define small scale business or industry as “any industry carrying on manufacturing products on serving activities with capital investment not exceeding N150,000 in machinery and equipment. The companies and allied maters decree number one of 1990, section 376 (2) also defined small scale indsurties as industries whose annual turn over is not more than their two million (N2,000,000) or whose asset value (not worth) is not more than one million (N1,000000). Small scale enterprise have been defined in several ways, at the level of capital, a small scale business have been defined as those industries with total investment of between (N200,000) and (N2,000000) exclusive of land built, including working capital. From the foregoing review on what people think should be the definition of a small scale enterprise, the researcher found it worth while to look small scale business dominates the overall business activities in Nigeria, individuals, groups, companies or cooperative can establish them but whatever the return of small business such business share the same characteristics as big one. It is interesting to note the most big business stated as small but with proper planning and effective management extended and know at the same time it will be risky to assure that small industries are exactly like big once after the difference in size.
According to the committee for economic development (ECD) of the united state, they have given a valuable list of characteristics of small and medium businesses as follows:
Managers are often the owners Owners supply capital Areas of location is mainly local Small in size with the industry
Acooding to (CAMA) company and allied matter act of (1990), the characteristics attributed to small business on industries as follows:
It is a private company united by shares. Amount o turn over is less than two million or such amount as may be fixed by the cooperative affairs commission. Its assets value is less than one million or such amount as may be fixed by the cooperative affairs commission. None of the members is government agent or nominee. None of its members is an alien.
At a small business from this angle, it may be useful to describe it in quantitative term as one which administrative and operation management lie in the hand of few or one person who are responsible for the major decision of the organization in almost exclusively in the hand of its owners.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISE TO THE ECONOMY
The characteristics of small business varies according to different school of though “size” in all relative depending on he individuals point of view. A company may be big when taken by itself and yet small when compared with other companies in the same industry since a company should therefore be categorized a small depending on the capital or the worth of such industry. Various school of thoughts have their point a follows:
Total investment cost Size of turn over Even operational environment that would be imaged by DERRI
According to Rosins (1972) a small scale enterprise is characterized by small market share. This is because the least majority of small firms do not have a large share of their market to enable them expand to any significant extent, the price or total qualitative goods and services sold.
CONTRIBUTION OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES TO THE ECONOMY
Small scale industries have its contribution to the economy. According to Hamza R. Zayyad (1981, vol.6, No.3) titled industrial development in Nigeria that in a developing economy such as ours, the need to have a balance economy of heavy industries and small industries cannot be over emphasized the list number of preditional and modern small business in Nigeria suggested that the situation offers sustained opportunity of the sector. The small business enterprise sector is not several contribution should be looked at in terms of goods and services as well as its role in supply required inputs to large scale enterprises and government effort. Small scale business makes it possible for consumer to get their needed goods almost at their door step because they are almost cited many kilometers away from their customers. As a result of this, goods produced by small scale industries are likely to cost less due to the obvious reason of reduction in transport cost. By this, the increase in output of goods and services at stable prices and possible at lower prices satisfactory to the customers.
PROBLEMS OF SMALL BUSINESS
Several problems hinder the growth of small scale industries. These problems have been conveniently grouped by experts as financial, managerial, technical and commercial. Financial problems should be expected given the limited capital of most of the entrepreneurs in the small and medium industries sector are in the ability to top maximum benefit from the resources of the organized financial sectors. Other problems which are central in the further growth of that enterprise include the training and educational limited ability to purchase expert advice, these contributes considerably to managerial problems, technical problems have been attributed to limited access to modern equipment and technology, which include maintenance and lack of association and lack of proper market survey and inadequate distribution channels for the scales of product and services.
According to Houseline M.B (1992) in the role of small scale industry to its locality stated that some principle administrative practice and excessive transaction rate hinder small scale product activities in residential area in urban towns. He further stated that they are poled with problems of higher transport cost in procurement of inputs and distributor of it goods and services to its numerous customers..