TRYPANOSOME PROFILE OF CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN ABAK ABATTOIR, ABAK LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in slaughtered cattle from June to October, 2018 in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A total of 150 blood samples was collected and parasitologically examined using standard trypanosome detection technique [(Buffy Coat method (BCM) and Geimsa stained thin blood films (smear)]. The study revealed an overall infection rate of 6.0%. The most predominant species of trypanosomes observed was Trypanosoma congloense (66.7%), Trypanosoma vivax (33.3%) and Trypanosoma brucei (11.1%). 66.7% of cattle in the area was infected with only one species of trypanosome while 33.3% of the animal was infected with at least more than one species of trypanosome. The highest prevalence (4%) of trypanosomosis was observed during the months of July-August. The PCV of the infected (18.8 ± 1.63) was significantly lower than the non infected cattle (25.6 ± 0.38). The study suggests a moderate to severe impact of trypanosomosis and an increasing trend in the rate of mixed infection in cattle in the area which is a major contributory factor in the occurrence of anaemia in cattle slaughtered for human consumption.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page - - - - - - - - - iDeclaration - - - - - - - - - iiCertification - - - - - - - - - - iii Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi List of Tables - - - - - - - - - ix List of Figures - - - - - - - - - xAbstract - - - - - - - - - xi
CHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 11.1 Problem Statement - - - - - - - 41.2 Justification - - - - - - - - 41.3 Aim - - - - - - - - - 51.4 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - 5
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Biology of Trypanosome Species - - - - - 62.1.1 Taxonomy of Trypanosomes - - - - - - 62.1.2 Classification of African Trypanosomes - - - - 72.1.3 Life Cycle of African Trypanosomes - - - - - 72.2 Biology of Glossina Species - - - - - - 102.2.1 Taxonomy of Tsetse Flies - - - - - - 112.2.2 Habitat and Distribution of Tsetse Flies - - - - 112.2.3 Life Cycle of Tsetse Flies - - - - - - 132.2.4 Mating - - - - - - - - - 188.8.131.52 Egg Stage - - - - - - - - 184.108.40.206 Larval Stages - - - - - - - - 220.127.116.11 First instar larva - - - - - - - 18.104.22.168 Second instar larvae - - - - - - - 22.214.171.124 Third instar larvae - - - - - - - 126.96.36.199 Pupa - - - - - - - - - 188.8.131.52 Adult Fly - - - - - - - - 172.3 Feeding Processes and Behavior of Tsetse Flies - - - 172.3.1 Movement and Activity of Tsetse Fly - - - - 182.3.2 Resting Sites - - - - - - - - 182.3.3 Response to Host Animals - - - - - - 192.3.4 Tsetse Fly Population Dynamics - - - - - 192.3.5 Host Range of Tsetse Fly - - - - - - 212.4 Control and Eradication of Tsetse Vector - - - - 232.5 Diagnosis of Trypanosomosis - - - - - 252.5.1 Clinical Diagnosis - - - - - - - 262.5.2 Parasitological Diagnosis - - - - - - 2184.108.40.206 Blood Film Technique - - - - - - 2220.127.116.11 Buffy Coat Technique - - - - - 28
CHAPTER THREEMATERIALS AND METHODS3.1 Study Area - - - - - - - - 303.2 Blood Sample Collection - - - - - - 303.3 Laboratory Analysis - - - - - - - 313.3.1 Parasitological Examination - - - - - - 313.3.2 Determination of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) - - - 313.4 Statistical Analysis - - - - - - - 31
CHAPTER FOUR4.0 Result and Discussions - - - - - - 32
CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 385.2 Recommendation - - - - - - - 38 References - - - - - - - - 39 Appendix - - - - - - - - 46
LIST OF TABLESPage Table 1: Overall Prevalence of Trypanosomosis in Cattle in the Study Area - - - - - - - 32 Table 2: Prevalence of Trypanosome Species in Infected Cattle in Study Area - - - - - - 33Table 3: Prevalence of Trypanosome Infection Type in Cattle in the Study Area - - - - - - - 35Table 4: Trypanosome Infection Rate in Cattle at Slaughter in Study Area - - - - - - - 35Table 5: Haematological Profile of Cattle in the Study Area - - 36
LIST FIGURESPagesFigure 1: Classification of African Trypanosomes - - - 7Figure 2: Diagram of Tsetse fly - - - - - - 13Figure 3: Photograph of Trypanosomes - - - - - 28
CHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTIONHaemoparasitic infections have a global distribution, stretching from the polar circle to the equator. This is due to the fact that their vectors; ticks and bloodsucking flies, also have a global distribution. The worldwide incidence of haemoparasitic infections in cattle has been severally reported by different workers (Laha et al., 1989; Luckins, 1992; Thach et al., 1996). In Nigeria there are about 10-15 million cattle, 1.2 million of these are in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria (NLS, 2009) and approximately half of these belong to the communal and commercial farmers (Palmer et al., 2006). Cattle owned by resource-poor farmers are kept on communal rangelands where they are grazed extensively (Masika and Mafu, 2004). Communal grazing is characterized by poor management of cattle and low productivity. Consequently, diseases and parasitism are rife and constitute major threats to cattle production in communal areas (Kaewthamasorn and Wongsamee, 2006, Rajput et al., 2006). Cattle in Nigeria may be infected with a wide variety of vector-borne haemoparasites (Callow, 1978, Swallow, 2000). Trypanosomes of the genera Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei, are amongs the most important haemoparasite of cattle in Africa (Makala et al., 2003; Mtshali et al., 2004; Kamani et al., 2010). African animal trypanosomosis, is considered as the most important constraints to the health and improved productivity of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa (FAO, 1984; Young et al., 1988, Bell-sakyi et al., 2004). This disease have generally shown to be associated with the destruction of red blood cells resulting in anaemia, jaundice, anorexia, weight loss and infertility (Mtshali et al., 2004; Kaufman et al., 2006, Jonsson, 2006; Justin, 2008). Cattle are very important economically because they are sources of animal protein and income. Their by products such as hoof, bones, blood, hides and skin. Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. Trypanosomosis have a global distribution. This is due to the fact that their vectors (tse tse fly) also have a global distribution. African trypanosomosis (AT) is a very important disease of domestic livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2000), it is probably the only disease which has profoundly affected the settlement and economic development of a major part of a continent. Animal trypanosomosis affects the health and productivity of livestock. It occurs in 37 sub-Saharan countries covering about 9 million km2 , an area which corresponds approximately to one-third of the Africa's total land area (Mtshali et al., 2004). An estimated 45 to 60 million cattle and tens of millions of small ruminants are at risk from trypanosomosis (Chadenga, 1994; Gilbert et al., 2001). FAO estimates that about three million cattle die each year due to AAT (FAO, 2002). Other valuable livestock, such as camels, also suffer from trypanosomosis (FAO (2000). Direct costs due to AT involve decreased livestock productivity (mortality, fertility, milk yield, ability to work as traction animals) to which can be added expenditure on controlling the disease (Bourn, 1978). Thirty five millions doses of trypanocides are administered each year to protect livestock in tsetse infected areas (Sones, 2001). Direct losses due to trypanosomiasis are estimated to amount to between US$ 1-1.2 billion each year whereas the indirect impact of AT on agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa exceeds this amount (FAO, 2002). A pondered evaluation extrapolated for the total tsetse-infested lands values the total losses, in terms of agricultural Gross Domestic Product, at US$ 4.75 billion per year (FAO, 2002). The overall impact extends to the restricted access to fertile and cultivable areas, imbalances in land use and exploitation of natural resources and compromised growth and diversification of crop-livestock production systems (Mtshali et al., 2004). The presence of tsetse flies and animal trypanosomosis in much of Africa south of the Sahara also had a major influence on the agricultural systems. Large areas of tropical Africa are unsuitable for livestock production due to presence of tsetse flies (Murray and Gray, 1984). In some Central African countries like the Republic of Gabon, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo and southern Cameroon there are still extensive areas of relatively undeveloped land. Only trypanotolerant breeds of domestic livestock can be kept here without chemoprophylaxis.1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Livestock productivity in sub saharan African countries such as Nigeria suffer from high prevalence of trypanosomosis with projected annual losses due to the direct and indirect consequences of the disease running into billions of naira with disproportionate adverse effect in rural area (Maikaje et al, 1991). This creates serious constriants to livestock and crop production thus directly influencing hunger, poverty, protein malnutrition and suffering of entire communities in Nigeria (Maikaje et al, 2002). Animal trpanosomosis therefore, is an important livestock disease in Nigeria which is considered as a threat to the on-going effort on poverty alleviation in the country. (Kalu et al., 2001). Outbreaks of this disease in cattle herds are one of the major problems militating against the cattle industry in Nigeria (Samdi et al, 2008). Moreso, the impact of trypanosomosis in this agro-ecological zone has impacted negatively on the adaptability of the bunagi (White Fulani) breed of cattle in this belt.
1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDYIn Nigeria, Tsetse fly and trypanosomosis problem is still extensively distributed in all agro-ecological regions. Although studies have been conducted in most areas of Nigeria, adequate information on the true prevalence of the disease in this part of the country is scanty and not current to enable proper surveillance and effect control of the disease.
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDYThis study was therefore conducted to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis, a vector-borne heamoparasitic disease in cattle and the associated change in heamatological parameters of slaughtered cattle in Abak abattoir.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY⦁ To determine the prevalence of trypanosomes in cattle in Abak L.G.A⦁ To determine the various species of trypanosomes present in cattle in Abak L.G.A⦁ To determine the relationship between trypanosome burden and haematological profile of cattle In Abak L.G.A.