The study investigate students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State The population for this study is made up of all Agricultural science students. The instrument used for this study was research design questionnaire and responses were elicited for the research, random sampling method was used to sample students offering agricultural science from each of the four schools involved in the study . Four research question and hypotheses were used to guide in the study.  simple percentage was used in answering the research question and chi-square analysis  was used to test the null hypotheses at a significant difference of 0.05.The result of the study reveal that student  have a positive perception,  positive attitude and interest toward practical agricultural science, furthermore it also showed that there is no significant difference between male and female student in their  interest, attitude and perception of agricultural science practical. Finally it was revealed that students perception of practical agricultural science influence their choice of agricultural science as a career The study recommended among others that agricultural science teachers should continue to sustain students interest in practical agricultural science through motivations and various pedagogical methods, and female students should be given equal opportunity in agricultural sector like their male counter parts since there is no difference in the way students viewed Agricultural science. The study further recommend that   student interest in agricultural science practical should be sustained through the provision of agricultural science facilities and learning resources.


Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Abstract vi

Table of Contents           vi



Background to the Problem 1

Statements of Problem 5

Purpose of the Study 6

Research Questions 7

Research Hypotheses 7

Scope of the Study 8

Clarification of Major Terms and Variables 9

Significance of the Study 10



Concept of Agricultural Education 12

Objectives and Contents of Agricultural Science Curriculum

Empirical Studies on Student Attitude Towards Practical Agricultural Science 17 Constrains To Teaching and Learning of Practical Agricultural Science in 

Secondary Schools 31

Strategies for Improving Teaching and Learning of Practical Agricultural Science 35

Appraisal of Reviewed Literature 37



Research Design 40

Population of the Study 40

Sampling and Sampling Techniques 41

Research Instrument 41

Validation of Instruments 41

Procedure for Data Collection 42

Data Analysis Techniques 43

          CHAPTER FOUR




Discussion 58

Conclusion 60

Recommendations 61

References 62

Appendix 63


Table 1: Responses of students on their perception of practical agricultural 

Science      40

Table 2: Responses on attitudinal differences between male and female senior 

secondary school students toward practical agricultural science       42

Table 3: Student choice of career in agricultural science based on their perception.    44

Table 4: Student response on their interest in practical agricultural science.        45

Table 5: Comparison of male and female perception on practical 

Agricultural science          47

Table 6: Analysis on attitudinal differences between male and female students  toward 

practical agricultural science.         47

Table 7: Analysis on the influence of gender perception toward practical agriculture on their choice of agricultural science as a career         48

Table 8: Student interest in practical agricultural science         49



Background to the Study

Globally, education today is widely known as the most effective investment a country can make. According to World Bank (2007) , education  is one of the critical pathway to promote social and economic development.

 It Education may be define as a process of training individuals in any society  to acquire appropriate knowledge and skills and to develop the minds intellectually  in order to live useful life and contribute to the progress of society through acquire skill and knowledge. Education may be form as in the case of established schooling systems. Education is said to be non-formal when training of the offspring is though the traditional method of acquiring knowledge and skill.

 It can bring about a better life, better world and raises economic development, it can improve the wellbeing of family and ensure better prospect of education for children (Galchukia, 1999). Secondary schools are the intermediary institutions between primary schools and tertiary institutions.  In the present 9-3-4 system of education in Nigeria, the last three years of nine year basic education is for upper basic  (Junior Secondary) while the three years is for Senior  secondary (FRN,2013). Its curriculum contains subjects that are capable of preparing its students to live a useful life within the society and also prepare them for higher education,  one of the subjects that can help in attaining these  objectives is Agricultural science. Agriculture is being defined by different experts based on the field of specialization or understanding. Agriculture therefore, refers to the human activity of cultivating crops and plantations for production of food and goods such as fibers, befouls, animal feed and livestock’s. In a broader sense, agriculture also includes breeding and raising livestock, poultry and dairying (Neok, 2011).

The need for agricultural science education in the Nigeria secondary schools system cannot be over emphasized due to the enormous impact of the agricultural sector on the nation’s economy. Agriculture plays a critical role in job creation & poverty alleviation by successive government in Nigeria through different programmes .The Nigerian agriculture had suffered neglect for decades due to the discovery of oil. However, the sector still contributes significantly to the nation’s gross domestic product. As highlighted by Adegboye (2004), agriculture contributes more than 30 percent of the country’s annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employs about 70 percent of the labour force, accounts for over 90 percent of the nation’s non-oil exports and provides over 80 percent of the country’s food resources. Most African economies are dominated by agriculture, which contributes about 17% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 40% of exports, employment creation and has the potential to reduce poverty. The agricultural sector has been described as the engine for economic growth and improved livelihoods in Africa (World Bank 2006; Diao et al., 2007). 

Practical aspect of Agricultural science is so vital to national growth and productivity. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), Agriculture is one of the subjects offered in  Junior and Senior Secondary Schools, as a pre-vocational elective and vocational elective respectively (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013). The teaching and learning of agricultural science in Nigeria secondary schools is far from satisfactory due to student perception and approach used in teaching the subject as pointed out by Sekamu (2009) , that agriculture is taught theoretically and has  failed  to make an impression on the society. Practical Agriculture is the practical work that facilitates the process of Acquisition of basic knowledge and practical skill that prepare students for occupation in Agriculture.

Perception is derived from the Latin words perception or presidio meaning the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment (Wikipedia, 2014).  Perception refers to individuals view of level of understanding of subject matter or things, an individual perception of things will determine the type of attitude that will be put on. According to Mukherjee (1998), the term attitude refers to one’s feelings, thought and predisposition to behave in some popular manner towards some aspect of one’s environment.  Attitude is the liking or disliking of an object based on what is known about it (Rameela, 2004). Attitude have a strong influences on people perception of the things around them and help to determine their likes and dislikes. Falaye and Ayoola (2006) pointed out that student attitude toward practical agricultural science is largely determined by their erroneous perception and misconception of the profession as the major livelihood option for the resource poor  farmers who have no other meaningful sustenance to earn a living. This myopic view has rather dampened the student moral and attitude without realizing that scientific and technological innovation has   transformed farming into a lucrative system business.

Gender difference in students also dictates their perception and altitude towards leaninig of science subjects including agriculture science and other vocational subject.

Female student tend to show a delikje  for sciences subject like agricural science that usually invoolbve strenuous practicalkk ythat require physical exertion which is usually associated with fatigure and something physical injure  [ Adesoji, 1999 and Ezewu ,1981], Attitude of past Administration in Nigeria towards Agricultural is very bad Alkthough the present Muhamadu Buari Administration is putting on a positive effort towards agriculture in order to curb the problems of unemployment, food shortage and to use the sector to diversify the economy of the country and also make many Nigerians to be self – reliant [ federal Government of Nigeria,[ FGN] 2016].which is one of the aim of vocational agriculture.

Gender refers to the social meanings associated with being a male or a female, including the construction of identities, expectations, behaviors and power relationships that derive from social interactions (Ambe-Uva, Iwuchukwu & Jibrin 2008) ). Orji (2002) asserted that in Africa, especially in a traditional Nigerian setting female and male sex roles are seen as mutually exclusive. For instance, some professions like carpentry, engineering, woodwork, metalwork and automobile engineering technologies are still regarded in some quarters as no-go-area for women while nursing and catering profession are seen as exclusive areas for women.

Statements of the Problem

The role of Agriculture in a nation cannot be underestimated, This ranges from availability of crops and animals in market to food security among other. Agricultural science is a practical oriented subject, however, the approach to teaching of agricultural science in most secondary school is theoretical and this has failed to make an impression on the society (Sekamu,2009). FRN (2009) pointed out that Nigeria schools should teach practical skills, knowledge and value which will help school leavers to solve real life problems. Learners learn better when they hear, see and touch which is the principle of learning by doing, this principle is best achieved by engaging oneself in practical activities (Osinem,2008), However with modernization in Agriculture ,there is a need to look into the perception and interest of secondary school students in practical agricultural science in order correct  their wrong perception to the aspect of agricultural science  if they have  negative perception of  the aspect  ,since student perception of things will determine their involvement in what they do and how well they will perform in such things .This study however, tries to investigate the perception of senior secondary school student towards practical agricultural science.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of secondary school student towards practical agriculture in senior secondary school in Ifelodun  Local Government Area of Osun State 

The specific purposes of the study are to;

(i) Identify how students perceive practical agricultural science. 

(ii) The influence of their perception on students’ interest in practical Agriculture science.

(iii)To determine whether students, perception of practical agricultural science influenced their choice of agricultural science as a career.

(iv) Find out whether gender differences have any significant effect on the perception of secondary school student toward practical agriculture. 

Research Questions

Based on the purpose on the study. The following research questions were formulated

  What are the students” perceptions about  practical agricultural science ?

1. What is the  influence of student perception on their interest in practical agricultural science ?

2. Does student perception of practical agricultural science influence their choice of agricultural science as a career?

3. Does gender difference have any significant effect on student perception towards practical agricultural science.? 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses (H0) were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance

H01 There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female students toward practical agriculture.

H02 There is no significant influence  of student perception of practical agricultural science on  their choice of agricultural science as a career.

H03 There is no significant influence of  students perception on their interest in practical agricultural science.

Scope of the Study

This study is limited to all secondary schools offering Agricultural science in Ifelodun  LGA .All senior secondary schools student offering agricultural science comprise the entire scope of the study.

       Significance of the Study

The outcome of the study would be of utmost benefit to curriculum planners, school administrators, agricultural science teachers, government, parents and students. 

To curriculum planner and developers, it would enable them to possess necessary knowledge and disposition to develop scientific curricular that would encourage practical Agricultural science.

To the school administrators it would provide information  which would make them realize the importance  of  practical  agriculture and would enable them to handle the aspect with care and  provide necessary things in term of human and material resource that would  make it teaching and learning  effective, 

To the teachers it would make them to be aware of perception of students towards practical agricultural science which will enable them to use different strategies to motivate student interest in agricultural science. 

To the students it will make them to be aware that their perception and interest of things will greatly determine how well they will perform and engage in such activities  

To the parents, it will help in educating those with wrong perception and misconception that subject like agricultural science is meant for male alone, thereby allowing their female children to engage in practical agricultural science

To the government, it will help them to know the level of interest of students in practical agricultural science which will make them to pump more resources in term of human and materials resources into the aspect in order to use the sector to diversify the economy of the nation, thereby reducing over dependence of the country on oil sector .

Clarification of Terms and Major Variables

 The following terms and variables are clarified operationally as used in this study

Perception: Is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information .or conscious understanding of something.

Attitude: is the disposition or state of mind about something. 

Co-education: this refers to school for both male and female.

Interest: a great attention and concern given to something

Gender: is a social cultural phenomenon of division of people into male and female

School Curriculum: this is an education programs prepared for formal education programs in the school. It comprises all the subject and extra-curriculum activities of the school.

Practical Agriculture: this the pragmatic work that facilitates the process of acquisition of basic knowledge and practical skills that prepare students for occupation in agriculture 

Vocational Education: Is a training or retraining, which is given in schools or classes under public supervision and control



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