Forest, which is a major source of resources in Nigeria, is currently facing accelerated degradation and depletion. The growing demand for ecosystem services from forests has led to over-exploitation of the resources, resulting in the extinction of some valuable species. This has continued to impact negatively on the capacity of the forests to mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, safeguard wildlife, and protect land and watershed. Approaches to forest management in Nigeria have not involved women in their desired perspective, irrespective of their dominant role in collection of forest produce. The influence of gender relationships on access to forests and forest resource management and sustainability has remained a concern to scholars and practitioners. This concern informed the need for this study. The broad objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender on sustainable management of forest resources in Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: identify and examine the participation of male and female farmers in the ownership and conservation of forest resources; identify and describe the various forest management practices and to examine the factors influencing the decision of men and women in the adoption of improved forest resource conservation measures. Others include; examine, the level of adoption of forest resource conservation strategies between the male and female farmers; analyze gender distribution of benefits from forest resource exploitation, analyze perceived importance of forest conservation factors among male and female farmers and examine the major constraints militating against forest resource conservation and management. Relevant data for the study were generated mainly through the administration of structured questionnaire to farmers, randomly selected from 6 LGAs. A total of 240 respondents comprising 120 male and 120 female farmers was drawn from the 410,435 farm families in the state. Information collected include socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, environmental and institutional factors, gender access to forest resource benefits and forest resource conservation factors. Data generated were analyzed using percentages, frequencies, likert rating scale and Tobit regression model.The major findings were that: use of improved forest management practices was almost non-existent as against the traditional management practices that were common; female farmers in the study area adopted more improved forest conservation measures than their male counterparts. Tobit regression analysis showed that the coefficient of gender, land ownership, and dependence on forest for income were negative and  significantly (p < 0.05) affected the adoption of improved forest resource conservation practices of the farmers, while credit access and gender discrimination in forest resource exploitation were positive and significant (p < 0.05). The analysis also indicated that forest resource management and conservation is driven by household size, land ownership, credit access, gender discrimination and dependence on forest for income and energy. The study, among others, recommended the pursuit of forestry management plan with emphasis on gender mainstreaming in forest conservation and management; improved extension outreach to forest dependent communities; pursuance of community based training programmes on forest management and conservation, with emphasis on those resources that are facing the risk of depletion/extinction; and the orientation of village heads on their role as custodians of natural resources in their communities.


Title page                                            i

Certification                                            ii Dedication                                            iii

Acknowledgement                                        iv

Table of Contents                                        v

List of Tables                                            ix

List of Figures                                            x



1.0    INTRODUCTION                                    1

1.1    Background information                                         1

1.2    Problem statement                                                                            5

1.3    Objectives of the study                                8

1.4    Research hypothesis                                            9

1.5    Justification of the study                                        9

1.6    Limitations of the study                                                        11


2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW                                12

2.1    Definition of concepts                                                    12

2.1.1    Gender                                                    12

2.1.2    Forest                                                                13

2.1.3    Sustainability                                        13

2.1.4    Sustainable Forest Management                                             15

2.1.5   Forest conservation                                                     16

2.2    Forest resource classification                                                17

2.3    Benefits derivable from forest resources                                 18

2.3.1    Economic value                                     19

2.3.2    Social benefits                                                 19

2.3.3    Environmental value                                             20

2.4    Gender and forest resource management                         20

2.5    Factors of forest resource management and sustainability                27

2.5.1    Monitoring, enforcement and forest resource sustainability                                 27

2.5.2    Property rights, security and resource sustainability                                     28

2.5.3    Biophysical factors and forest resource sustainability                                29 2.6    Theoretical framework of the study                            30

2.7    Conceptual framework of the study                                                             33

2.8    Analytical framework    of the study                             35     CHAPTER THREE

3.0    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                    39

3.1    Study area                                                39

3.2    Sampling procedure                                            41

3.3    Data collection                                                    41

3.4    Data analysis/Analytical techniques                                    42

3.4.1    Empirical model specification                                            42

3.4.2    A priori expectation of the model                                     43

3.4.3    Likert scale rating                                                    46

3.4.4     Hypotheses testing                                                                    4


4.0       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                            48

4.1    Forest Ownership and Conservation                            48

4.1.1    Forest Ownership, Access and Topography                        48

4.1.2    Forest Nature and Ownership Pattern                            49

4.1.3    Gender and Forest Resource Conservation                        53

4.1.4    Gender and Forest Resource Conservation Strategies                54

4.2    Gender and Forest Resource Management                        55

4.2.1    Gender and Forest Resource Management Practices                    55

4.2.2    Rationale for Selecting Management Practices                    57

4.3    Socio-economic and Environmental Attributes of Respondents            58

4.3.1    Age of Respondents                                    59

4.3.2    Educational Attainment                                59

4.3.3    Marital Status of Respondents                            61

4.3.4    Farming Experience of Respondents                            61

4.3.5    Occupations of Respondents                                62

4.3.6    Household Size of Respondents                            63

4.3.7    Extension Access and Membership of Rural Institutions                64

4.3.8    Gender Barrier in Forest Resource Use                        65

4.4    Factors Influencing the Adoption of Improved Forest Resources            

Conservation Measures                                66

4.4.1    Identification of Significant Differences by Gender in their Level of    

Adoption of Conservation Strategies                            71

4.5    Gender and Forest Resource Benefit                            77

4.6    Scale Analysis of Perceived Importance of Forest Resource               

    Conservation Factors                                     79

4.7    Forest Resource Use and their Constraints                                            81

4.7.1    Forest Resources and their Uses                            81

4.7.2    Gender and Constraints of Forest Resource Use                    84



5.1    Summary                                        87

5.2    Conclusion                                        91

5.3    Recommendations                                    91

5.4    Major Contributions to Knowledge                            95

5.4    Areas for Further Research                                95

    References                                         96   


4.1    Opinion of Respondents as Regards Forest Ownership and Topography        48

4.2    Response of Respondents According to Forest Nature and Ownership        

Pattern                                            49

4.3    Gender Role in Forest Resource Conservation and Management            53

4.4    Frequency Distribution of Respondents According Forest Conservation

Strategies                                        54

4.5    Forest Management Practices of Respondents Disaggregated by Gender        55

4.6    Gender Distribution of Reasons for Selecting Management Strategies        58

4.7    Age Distribution of Respondents by Gender                        59

4.8    Educational Status of Respondents by Gender                    60

4.9    Marital Status of Respondents Disaggregated by Gender                61

4.10    Farming Experience of Respondents by Gender                    62

4.11    Occupations of Respondents                                 62

4.12    Distribution of Gender According to Household Size                63

4.13    Distribution of Respondents According to Extension Access        

    Membership of Rural Institution                            64

4.14    Respondents Opinion Regarding Gender Barriers in Forest Resource

    Exploitation                                        65

4.15    Tobit Model Estimate for the Male Farmers                        67

4.16    Tobit Model Estimate for the Female Farmers                    69

4.17    Comparison of the Tobit Estimates for Male and Female Farmers            71

4.18    Tobit Model Estimate for the Male and Female Farmers (Pooled Result)        75

4.19    Z-test Analysis of Level of Adoption Between Male and Female Farmers        77

4.20    Forest Resource Benefit-Sharing (in Naira) Disaggregated by Gender        78

4.21    Likert Scale Result on Scale Analysis of Perceived Importance of

    Forest Resource Conservation Factors                        80

4.22    Opinions of Respondents Regarding the Use of Forest Resource/Products        81

4.23    Household Energy Sources                                83

4.24    Response of Gender with Regards to Constraints Encountered in the

    Exploitation of Forest Resources/Products                        86



1.1    Background Information

The contribution of forest to the sustainability of livelihood and environmental quality cannot be overemphasized. Forest resources, namely woodland, shrubland, bush fallow and farm bush and trees on farms, as well as ecosystem dominated by trees (Arnold, 1998), provide households with income, ensure food security, reduce their vulnerability to shocks and adversities and promote their wellbeing. Indeed, forest environment and the diversity of life, which they harbour, represent an irreplaceable asset to the biosphere and mankind. Ecologically, their function is unquestionable as they provide two-thirds of the net primary productivity of all terrestrial ecosystems, of which our priceless tropical forest account for about sixty percent (Adegboye, 1992). The rich flora and fauna found in the forest meet the subsistence need of the numerous communities especially those living in the vicinity of the forest (Kailsha, 1993).

Globally, forest resources have been a source of subsistence to millions of people throughout the evolutionary history of our species. Different parts of the forest plants, such as leaf, flower, fruit, seed, twig, pod, stem, root, tuber, bark and exudates and whole plant are used for various purposes. Forests not only provide food, fibre and fuelwood but also supply household articles, construction materials and ornamentals to mankind (Adegboye, 1992, Adger and Brown, 1994; Louis, 1993; Kailsha, 1993; Odoemena, 2006). Forest hard wood has been a source of hard currencies, fuel wood and security for the poor. In fact, research on non-farm rural employment and income shows that small scale production and trading activities in forest products constitute one of the largest parts of rural non-farm enterprise employment (Liedholm and Mead, 1993). It is in acknowledgement of the importance of forest resources for livelihood and environmental stability that its conservation and hence sustainable management has been included in the millennium development goals of the United Nations. In Nigeria, poverty has led to the dependence of over 90% of the rural population on forest for livelihood and economic survival (United Nations, 2002; Chukwuone, 2008).

Again, forests play a profound role in the maintenance of soil fertility. Forest leaves and branches of trees cover the top soil, thereby intercepting heavy down pours of rainfall and high velocity moving wind which would have eroded the soil, thereby rendering it less fertile and unproductive. Similarly, dead and decaying portions of forest trees improve the soil texture and structure thus increasing the water infiltration capacity of the soil and thereby enhancing nutrient recycling.

However, for man to continue to derive these benefits, forests and their abundant resources must be well protected against over exploitation. Unfortunately, this is not so. The over - exploitation of forest resources by both genders represents one of the greatest forces in global environmental degradation (Cock and Kock, 1991; GEO, 2000). Although the net loss of forest is slowing down, deforestation and forest degradation remains an on-going phenomenon, especially in tropical regions.

Forest resources have continued to provide off-farm employment to a large segment of the rural populace and account for enormous share of household income. For instance, in 1996 in Southeastern Nigeria, 35.7% of the rural population collected non timber forest products (NTFPs) daily and it accounted for 94% of total income from minor sources (Nweze and Igbokwe, 2000). Similarly, Bisong and Ajake (2001) discovered that women in southern Nigeria depend heavily on non-wood forest products (NWFPs). In fact, many Nigerians depend on forest resources for food, fibre and herbal medicines (Chukwuone, 2008).

 The growing demand for ecosystem services from forests, calls for a strategic approach to optimize the capacity of forests to mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, safeguard wildlife and protect land and watershed (FAO, 2005). This has to do with the adoption of sustainable forest management. The forest principle states that to achieve sustainable forest management forest resources and forest lands should be managed to meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual human needs of the present and future generation (FAO, 2005).

Sustainable management of these resources will help guarantee the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. One of the cardinal means of ensuring sustainability in forest resources is the application of FAO strategy for sustainable management of forests and trees. This calls for   increase involvement of forest stakeholders particularly women in policy- making and legislation, to enhance the contribution of forests to livelihoods, and to make forestry, a more economically viable land-use option. Indigenous knowledge of the local people, both male and female gender, especially as it pertains to the use of the forest resources is a key issue in resource conservation and sustainability (Osemeobo and Ujor, 1999).

Women are critical actors in the management of forest resources. Their participation in sustainable forestry management is conditioned by their levels of forest dependence, the biophysical quality of the forest, their age, wealth levels, caste, or ethnicity (Davidson-Hunt,1996; Nuggehalli and Prokopy, (2009). As the main and most frequent collectors of forest products, women are more familiar with the forest than men (Agarwal, 1997). Moreover, they are more burdened than men by deteriorating forest conditions and have a tendency to conserve and to reduce pressure on forest resources in order to mitigate hardship. Men are largely involved in timber extraction unlike women who use products such as firewood, non-timber forest products (NTFP),that demand more frequent interaction with the forests (Pandofelli, Meinzen-Dick and Dohrn, 2009). Women adopt environmentally friendly farming system practices such as terracing and taungya cultivation of fodder trees and campaign against free grazing in community forests, practices which lower pressures on forests (Gbadegesin, 1996; Acharya and Gentle, 2006).

However, Jackson (1993) and Mackenzie (1995) cautioned against assuming a necessary and complementary relationship between women and sustainability because they may be constrained by the existing structure of disincentives such as limited control over land, labour and technology. Also, women under some settings may prefer not to engage in forest management activities either because of wealth or because they view land-based activities as backward (Jewitt, 2000; and Reurreccion, 2006).  

Similarly, Chukwuone (2008) submits that conservation initiative, which is an aspect of sustainable management, will be more successful if the indigenous people assume active roles. This is based on the advantages that can be gained by drawing on their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources and by building on the sustainable systems of use that the local people, especially the male and female categories seem to have created (Redford and Mansour, 1996). Participatory forest resource management is often seen as an appropriate solution to reducing resource degradation and it is generally assumed that granting property rights over to local commons would ensure the equitable and sustainable use and management of environmental resources. Through local participation, nearby communities would be engaged as stakeholders in managing the resources thus ensuring their commitment to long-term management goals (FAO, 1995).

However, the management of forest resources in Nigeria, especially national parks and forest reserves are in the hands of government and local participation is limited. (Forest reserves are areas set aside by state governments for the protection of timber, NWFPs, fuel wood and other forest resources in their domains). In principle, local people own forests but the management and control of forest resources are vested in the state governments. In fact, the first Forestry Act enacted in 1937, established the forest reserve system under the state government.

1.2    Problem Statement

Despite the importance of forest resources in the maintenance of environmental equilibrium as well as its improvement of rural income, the degradation of forest resources has remained an on-going phenomenon, especially in the tropical regions. There is growing demand for ecosystem services from forests. This is impacting negatively on the capacity of forests to mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, safeguard wildlife and protect land and watershed. According to Osemeobo and Ujor (1999), NWFPs are being depleted at an unprecedented rate as a result of increasing population pressure, agricultural practices and demand.

In Nigeria, a great percentage of the luxurious vegetation has been removed and some species have gone into extinction (UN, 2002). For example, Nigeria lost 1.214km of forests between 1990 and 1995. Consequently, an estimated 484 plants and 12 animal species were threatened with extinction. A comparison of Nigeria’s vegetation map of 1992 and 1997 showed a sharp decline in vegetation cover in just a period of five years (Chukwuone, 2008). World Rain Forest Movement (1999) records that between 70 and 80 percent of Nigeria’s original forests have been lost leaving a paltry present-day   territory of 12% forest area. Generally, forest depletion in Nigeria occurs at an annual rate of 3.5% (Chukwuone, 2008). Through their activities, the gender categories have exhibited profound impact on forest resources resulting in these visible signs of depletion and degradation of forest resources.

Unfortunately, approaches to forest governance and management in many developing countries including Nigeria, have not involved women in their desired proportion. (Tinker, 1994; Locke, 1999; and Agarwal, 2001). An improved policy environment that has potential to address gender inequality has not necessarily resulted in gains for women even though a large and growing literature illustrates their knowledge of and dependence on forest products (Shanley and Gaia, 2001; Colfer, 2005). Women continued to be disadvantaged by insecure access and property rights to forest and tree resources (Place, 1995; Meinzen-Dick, Brown, Feldstein and Quisumbing, 1997). Furthermore, they disproportionately bear the cost of tree and forest management, realize only a fraction of the benefits and are mostly enlisted to take part in decision-making when forest and tree resources are degraded (Agarwal and Chhatre, 2006). Moreover, because of lack of formal education, unemployment and personal networks, they are too poorly placed to influence resource allocation or research priorities (Crewe and Harrison 1998).

The need to appreciate the gravity of this continued lack of female involvement in the management of forest resources is urgent because women continue to be among the poorest in developing countries and their dependence on forest resources for subsistence and income will assume even greater importance as forests become more threatened because of increasing global trade, climate change, food insecurity, urbanization and energy (CIFOR, 2008).

Incidentally, the influence of gender relationships in access to forests, forest resource management and sustainability has remained a concern to scholars and practitioners. Approaches to forest management the world over have undergone profound changes: from the central state control prior to the 1970s through the community-based approaches of the 1980s and the devolution of the 1990s. Yet, women’s involvement in decision -making has hardly kept pace with the earlier changes and they do not seem to fare any better under the devolution programmes (Agarwal 2007, Jumbe and Angelsen, 2007).Women need to assume more visible  roles in forest management  as they face new challenges due to increasing global interconnectedness and climate change (Mwangi, Meinzen-Dick and Sun, 2009). The female gender constitutes the most important user group collecting forest produce for meeting the family’s subsistence needs. Therefore, sustainable forest management is not just possible without their active involvement. Similarly, International Union for Conservation of Nature (2011) opines that if the forestry sector ignores gender issues, it will miss a huge opportunity to reduce poverty, conserve biodiversity and bolster sustainable development. However, forest policies and forest management practices have remained gender blind and ignore the intimate relationship between gender and forests management. As a result, the women continue suffering and their drudgery increase as the forest degradation continue (Pratima, 1999).

In the past, the government established some forest reserves with the aim of conserving forest resources. Unfortunately, these forest reserves have been seriously neglected for some time. They received little or no attention in terms of investment and management (United Nation, 2002). Adequate manpower, equipment and funds are not provided for proper implementation of sustainable forest management. These forest reserves are seen as sources of generating revenue without funding the forests for sustainable production. This has resulted in the over-exploitation of the resources. Currently, Nigeria’s forest resources are under threat due to poor funding and lack of a proper management plan. Thus, the annual total deforestation rate in Nigeria between 2000 and 2005 was put at 3.3% which translates to an annual average loss of 410,000 ha of forest (FAO, 2005).

Furthermore, forest management programmes in Nigeria including Abia State are not participatory. The forest dependent communities comprising of the male and female gender are not involved in protecting and managing of the forest resources (Chukwuone, 2008). Generally, little or nothing has been done to involve both genders in the management plans for community forest. In fact, even women who constitute the most important user group, collecting forest produce and playing stabilizing roles in families, even when headed by men, are neglected. They are left out when it comes to introducing environmental and natural resources management programmes (Rodda, 1998).

Besides, most community forest areas are not under any systematic management. Many of the forest resources and species are over harvested as harvests are uncontrolled and carried out in a highly destructive manner. This may ultimately lead to extinction of these species if the situation is left unchecked.

This rural- based study therefore examined the effect of gender on sustainable management of forest resources in Abia State. The study was guided by the following research questions:

⦁    Is division of labour and responsibilities in forestry use in the study area gender- sensitive?

⦁    What is the nature of ownership of the forest? Is it government, community or homestead?

⦁    What is the traditional pattern of ownership of forest by men and women?

⦁    Does ownership determine access to, collection of, use of, and benefits from forest products?

⦁    What are the various forest resource management practices in place in the study area?

⦁    Are there any constraints on gender in the collection and use of forest products?

1.3    Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the effects of gender on sustainable management of forest resources in Abia State, Nigeria.

 The specific objectives are to:

i)    identify and examine the participation of men and women in the ownership and conservation of forest resources;

ii)    identify and describe the various forest management practices;

iii)    examine the factors  influencing the decision of men and women in the adoption of improved forest resource conservation measures;

iv)    examine whether there is any significant differences in the level of adoption of conservation strategies between the male and female famers

v)    analyze the benefits derivable by genders from forest use;

vi)    analyze perceived importance of forest resource conservation factors among male and female farmers;                            

vii)    identify and examine the major constraints militating against forests; and resource conservation and management.

1.4    Research Hypotheses

This study was guided by the following null hypotheses:

i)    there is no significant difference in the level of adoption of conservation practices between the male and female categories;   

ii)    the socio-economic and environmental factors of the respondents are not significantly related to their forest conservation practices.

1.5    Justification of the Study

Depletion of forest resources has been a source of world-wide concern. In the study area, the forests which stand out clearly as a major source of resources is currently facing accelerated degradation and depletion (Eboh, Achike, Ujah, Amakom, Oduh, Nzeh and Larsen,  2006). The growing demand for ecosystem services from forests in Nigeria  including  Abia State has led to over exploitation of the resources with the concomitant extinction of some valuable species (FAO, 2001). According to Eboh, (2006) the forest resources are under pressures from urbanization, infrastructural development, residential construction and population growth. Though there has been great achievement by most forest management efforts, rarely has the objectives of sustainability in forest resources management been achieved (Reis 1995).

In Nigeria like most developing countries, there are weak economic, political and legal institutions and poor property rights regime. Opportunistic behaviours such as cheating, corruption and rent seeking abound, so costs of many resources including forest resources are high. In addition, marked increase in responsibilities of government with concomitant increase in budgetary provisions under stagnant economies has made the situation precarious. Currently, government can no longer meet up with their responsibility of providing incentives for the field workers. Most ministries and parastatals including forest sector no longer receive allocations for capital projects.

With the lean government finances, at federal, state and local government levels coupled with increased expenditures in different sectors, the forests, especially forest reserves in Nigeria and specifically in Abia State have been seriously neglected. UN (2002) reported a general poor funding of forest sector in Nigeria. The report by Osemeobo and Ujor (1999) shows that only about 10% of the budgetary allocation to the agricultural sector was made available for forestry development. Similarly, FAO (2003) report reveals that only 2 to 4 percent of the annual allocation to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture was released to Forestry Department. Also, AIAE (2006) reported that in 2006 fiscal expenditure by the federal government, only N6 billion out of a total amount of N1.88 trillion was allocated to the Ministry of Agriculture including forestry department. Moreover, most state forest sector have not received funds for capital projects since the military era of governance in Nigeria. Furthermore, forest workers are not regularly paid their salaries, thereby diminishing performance incentive. This condition even encourages corruption and unwholesome attitude including over-exploitation of forest resources. This situation may lead to loss of livelihood for those who depend on the forests as it negates the forest principle as earlier mentioned.  

The prevailing poverty condition of the forest dependent communities, especially the female gender has made the situation more dire. Their use of forest resources has immeasurable impact on NTFP resource abundance and productivity, though can be sustainable if appropriate management systems are put in place (Clark, 2001).

To remedy this ugly trend, there is need to evolve strategies that will inject dynamism in forest resource management by the different gender categories in the forest- dependent communities. Therefore, the need for the development of a comprehensive body of knowledge especially as it relates to gender disaggregated data on forest resources and their management is very dire and germane.

1.6    Limitation of the Study

The study was subject to some limitations. It focused on the effects of gender on sustainable management of forest resources. It was limited in time, scope and resources. The study was carried out in six out of seventeen LGAs of the state. The problem of bias and lack of representativeness was avoided by the use of random sampling. The information provided by the respondents was based on memory recall as majority of the farmers do not keep records of their farming activities. However, the problem of memory and intentional biases were circumvented by the use of experienced and well- trained personnel, vast in data collection.

Another challenge was the issue of insecurity due to the menace of kidnapping prevalent in the study area at the time. This problem was overcome by engaging indigenes familiar with the terrains, as part of the data collection team. Nevertheless, the results of this study represent a good approximation of the state of forest resource conservation and management in the study area.



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  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
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  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

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