INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES OF TAX EVASION IN LAGOS STATE (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SMES IN IKEJA LGA)


INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES OF TAX EVASION IN LAGOS STATE (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SMES IN IKEJA LGA) 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The concept of taxation has been a concern of global significance as it affects every economy irrespective of national differences (Oboh etal., 2012). According to Omotoso (2001), in his definition of the modern taxes, defined tax as a compulsory charge imposed by a public authority on the income of individuals and companies as stipulated by the government decrees, acts or cases laws irrespective of the exact amount of services rendered to the payer in return. A more recent and comprehensive definition was given by Dr. Ekenze Oliver of Buitas Consultancy to the effect that tax is: “a compulsory levy imposed by an organization or Government on its member citizens, for the sole purpose of providing common goods and services for the benefit of all members”. He continued: “tax is designed to raise revenue required for the expenditure authorized in a government budget expectation. It is also a veritable instrument of promoting social and economic justice and equality amongst citizens of a state or members of an organization”. As could be gleaned from the above definitions, a tax is not therefore a voluntary payment; it is a compulsory pecuniary burden placed upon the subjects of a given country to support the people. Thus, taxes constitute the principal source of government revenue and the beauty of any government is for its citizen to voluntarily execute their tax obligations without much coercion and harassment. The greatest puzzle facing the Nigerian tax system is the threat of tax evasion and tax avoidance. It is widely believed that there is a substantial difference between estimated revenue from taxation every year and what is actually collected.

Tax evasion is a major problem plaguing many emerging economies across the globe and Nigeria situation seems unique when viewed against the scale of corrupt practices evident in the country. Under the direct personal taxation as practiced in Nigeria, the major problem lies in the collection of the taxes especially from the self-employed such as the businessmen, contractors, professional practitioners like lawyers, doctors, accountants, architects and traders in shops among others (Kiabel and Nwokah, 2009). As observed by Ayua (1999) cited in Kiabel and Nwokah (2009) these persons blatantly refuse to pay tax by reporting losses every year. Ayua (1999) further asserts that many of these professionals live a lifestyle inconsistent with reported income, which is usually unrealistically low for the nature of their businesses. The only categories of individuals who fulfill their tax obligation in Nigeria are civil servants and other salaried workers.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Tax evasion in Nigeria has been a cause for a serious concern; this is because it has led to the depletion in the internally generated revenue which has by extension adversely affected our economic growth and development.

1.3 Objectives of the study 

The following are the aims and objectives of this study

1. To examine the major causes of tax evasion in Nigeria.

2. To examine the relationship between tax evasion penalty and tax evasion in Nigeria.

3. To examine the relationship between high tax rate and tax evasion in Nigeria.

4. To know if many business owners pay tax.

1.4 Research questions

1. What are the major causes of tax evasion in Nigeria?

2. What is the relationship between tax evasion penalty and tax evasion in Nigeria?

3. What is the relationship between high tax rate and tax evasion in Nigeria?

4. Do many Nigerian business owners pay tax?

1.5 Research hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant relationship between high tax rates and tax evasion in Nigeria

Hi:There is no significant relationship between high tax rates and tax evasion in Nigeria

Ho: There is no significant relationship between weak penalties and tax evasion in Nigeria.

Hi:There is a significant relationship between weak penalties and tax evasion in Nigeria.

1.5 Significance of the study

This study would be important to tax authorities in Nigeria as it would unravel the main causes of tax evasion in Nigeria with a view to creating tax policies that would encourage more people to pay tax.

1.7 Scope/Limitations of the study

This study on causes of tax evasion in Nigeria with Ikeja LGA in Lagos state serving as the case study

Limitations of study

1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 Definition of terms

Tax:A compulsory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers' income and business profits, or added to the cost of some goods, services, and transactions.

Evasion:To escape or avoid (someone or something), especially by guile or trickery.

Revenue:The income generated from sale of goodsor services, or any other use of capital or assets, associated with the main operations of an organization before any costs or expenses are deducted.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to the investigation into the causes of tax evasion in Lagos State. The chapter also gives a resume of the history and present status of the problem delineated by a concise review of previous studies into closely related problems.

2.2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

The Warner Model: Warner developed the RR technique in 1965. This innovative technique was originally developed in order to provide protection to the respondents when sensitive questions were asked from them. In this technique two logically opposite questions were asked from respondents and they were directed to answer one or other outcome which was depending upon the used device. For example: a question is asked about tax evasion which is logically a sensitive question. In order to get answer from respondent, a dice may be tossed along with determined outcomes such as:

⦁ I have evaded tax. [1, 2, 3 or 4]

⦁ I have never evaded tax. [5 or 6]

Answer True or False

When respondent will asked to answer the question, he will said True or False and researcher will unable to understand that whether respondent is answering Q1 or Q2. This scenario will protect the privacy of respondents’ answer. However, a statistical technique named as probability theory will help researcher to examine the associated sampling variance and to estimate proportion of answer relating to Q1 (π) by using following equations:

P (True) = P (Q1) P (TrueQ1) + P (Q2) P (True Q2) (1)

Or λ = pπ + (1 - p)(1 - π) (2)

Thus, [*] = (λˆ+ p - 1) / (2p - 1) (p ≠ .5) (3)

And Var [*] = [π(1 - π) / n] + [p(1 - p) / n(2p - 1)2] (4)

Where: [*] = the estimated proportion of ‘true’ responses to Q1;

n = the sample size; 

p = the probability of answering Q1; and 

λˆ = the observed proportion of ‘true’ responses;

Moreover, it was claimed by Warner (1965) that RR technique can be used in order to reduce the nonresponses biases and responses biases which were originated from sensitive survey questions, therefore, this model will be suitable for attaining the sensitive questions because increase in estimator’s variance due to the randomizing producer into design is one of the major drawback of this model.

2.3 THE CONCEPT OF TAXATION

The concept of taxation has been a concern of global significance as it affects every economy irrespective of national differences (Oboh etal., 2012). According to Omotoso (2001), in his definition of the modern taxes, defined tax as a compulsory charge imposed by a public authority on the income of individuals and companies as stipulated by the government decrees, acts or cases laws irrespective of the exact amount of services rendered to the payer in return.

A more recent and comprehensive definition was given by Dr. Ekenze Oliver of Buitas Consultancy to the effect that tax is: “a compulsory levy imposed by an organization or Government on its member citizens, for the sole purpose of providing common goods and services for the benefit of all members”.

He continued: “tax is designed to raise revenue required for the expenditure authorized in a government budget expectation. It is also a veritable instrument of promoting social and economic justice and equality amongst citizens of a state or members of an organization”.

As could be gleaned from the above definitions, a tax is not therefore a voluntary payment; it is a compulsory pecuniary burden placed upon the subjects of a given country to support the people. Thus, taxes constitute the principal source of government revenue and the beauty of any government is for its citizen to voluntarily execute their tax obligations without much coercion and harassment. The greatest puzzle facing the Nigerian tax system is the threat of tax evasion and tax avoidance. It is widely believed that there is a substantial difference between estimated revenue from taxation every year and what is actually collected.

.

INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES OF TAX EVASION IN LAGOS STATE (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SMES IN IKEJA LGA)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.