THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT OF GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT OF REVENUE IN NIGERIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT (A Case Study of Asa Local Government, Ilorin)
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problems
1.3 Objectives of Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope and Limitation of Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Historical Background of Asa Local Government
2.2 The Structure of Asa Local Government
2.3 Organization and Plan of the Study
2.4 Definition, Importance and Uses of Revenue
2.5 Functions of Local Government
2.6 Sources of Generating Revenue
2.7 Revenue collectors and Their Responsibilities
2.8 Problems of Internal Revenue Generation
2.9 Prospects of Internal Revenue Generation
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Sources of Data Collection
3.3 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of data
4.1 Presentation of Data
4.2 Analysis of Data
4.3 Testing and Interpretation of Hypothesis
4.4 Discussion of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Several definitions have been given to local government by various scholars. In most cases, these scholars defined local government as a political entity.
Leo and Anthony (1989) defined local government as subordinate unit of administration and vest in them the authority to perform local function.
Awolowo (1989) also defined local government as a system of government where in local council accepts responsibility for and implements their own decision subject to such control as may be exercised by the people through their own regional government.
The guidelines for local government reform (2000) defined local government as government of local level exercised through representative council, established by law to exercise specific power within defied areas.
In the year 2001, they also defined local government as a political sub-division of a nation or state which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs including the power to impose tax or to exert labour for prescribed purpose.
From the above definition, one can deduce that local government is the unit of government administration at local level below state. It is a device from local expression to purely opinion with the aim of the country. Also, in the hierarchy of government, federal and state is expected to perform several functions such as the provision of social services like education, health, water supply, construction of road, general administration, e.t.c. local government has to generate revenue in order to finance or carried out the function above, among the ways of generating revenue are as follows:
i. All form to tax (e.g. Direct, Indirect, Personal Income tax e.t.c)
ii. Grant and aids
iii. Gains from government investment
iv. Oil revenue
v. Royalties from companies
vi. Development levy. e.t.c
Therefore, generation of revenue is very important for local government to finance their numerous functions. It should be noted that this study set out to examine not only the revenue sources a available to local government; it also intends to examine the problem encountered, management of revenue generated and possible solution to the problems.
Hopefully, the study will serve as sources of correcting those problems.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The local government is faced with myriads of problems ranging from corruption and embezzlement, poor financing, management of funds to poor leadership. This has deterred the development of local government in Nigeria.
The major issues are: What has contributed to the non performance, is it because of total dependence on federal and state statutory allocation? Is it as a result of ineffective utilization of available scarce resources or mismanagerial by public office holders? Is it as a result of poor internally generated revenue drive? Among others, certain percentage of the statutory allocation has always been deducted by the state government, thereby causing the local government to underperform which include:
i. Dilapidated infrastructural facilities
ii. Unavailability of social services to rural populace
iii. Under development of local communities
Base on the above stated problems, it has become necessary to conduct an analysis on the problem and prospect of generation and management of revenue in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
i. To investigate the system by which local government generated their revenue.
ii. To know the major source of revenue in local government and how those revenue are been administered
iii. To identify the problems of revenue collection and suggestion on how to reduce the problem identified
iv. To review revenue collection in local government
v. To analyze the machinery of internally generated revenue
vi. To determine the impact of revenue generated in Nigeria local government
vii. To review the various sources of internally generated revenue.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is evident that the provision of social amenities in our society is solely the task of the government, not only the executive of the project but also the favouration of policies to ensure an effective application of the researcher. These desire objectives have not been accomplished for some obvious research.
Therefore, this research work will initiate a researcher for better policies formulation approach and prudent application of the limited available resources for the betterment of the citizens.
Also, it will make local government to be sure whether proper they are managing their revenue section and financial resources properly. As the loopholes will be expected, this is with a view to take corrective measures.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY SCOPE OF STUDY
The study would appraise the revenue generation for the period of five year (2009-2013) in three local governments in kwara State, East Senatorial district. The research is intended to be carried out using secondary data.
Secondary data will be obtained from the monthly allocation from the office of Accountant general of Kwara State.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study has some limitation, most especially in the area of data collection which is to be covered and has time duration of five years (i.e. 2009-2013).
Financial constraints as well as time available for the completion of the study are among other factors that would limit the scope of the study.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What are the problems and prospect of generation and management of revenue in Kwara State?
ii. Are there adequate modern social amenities in Asa Local government Area?
iii. Has the problem of generation and management of revenue in Asa Local government contributed to the rural-urban migration?
iv. How can revenue generation in Asa Local Government be improved?
v. How will you assess the revenue generation in Asa Local Government Area?
vi. Is local government meeting the needs of people?
vii. How can you qualify the services rendered to this locality by Asa Local Government?
viii. Are the people encountering any problem in every distribution of social amenities?
ix. What can you say about the standard of economic services rendered by local government?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
REVENUE: Government revenue can be viewed as a generic form for all monetary receipt accruing to government from both tax and non-tax sources.
TAXATION: As a process of levying and collection of tax from person or body of person by a public authority with proper jurisdiction.
TAX: It can be defined as a compulsory contribution from a person to the government imposed by the public authority irrespective of the exacts amount of service rendered by public.
LEVY: It is another form of tax and a compulsory contribution collected from person.
LOOPHOLE: On the law, it is small mistake of omission which allows you to avoid doing something that the law intends you to do.
PAYER: It is a system of removing tax in which your employers subtract your tax from your salary or wages and then pay of directly to the government.
P.A.Y.E: Is the abbreviation of pay as you earn
VOUCHER: Is a piece of paper that can be used instead of money to pay for something.
TAX EVASION: It is crime of not paying the full amount of that you should.
GRANT AND AIDS GRANT: Is an amount that the government gives to a person or an organization for a particular purpose such as education or home improvements.
AIDS: Is money equipment or services that are provided for people in need.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
The local government in Nigeria was established for the purpose of rendering services and supplying amenities to the people in both rural and urban area according to the document establishing the local government reforms (1976).
In the hierarchy of government, the local government council generally called local government area is the grassroots.
The council of heterogeneous population with different culture, language and needs.
Thus, all level of government, be it the top, in the middle, or at the bottom, finance in need for proper management need to be emphasized at the proportion of collectible revenue for the government is often used as an indicator for the economic development of any state and local government in particular and nation in general.
When a local government (in particular) economy and administration of its accrued revenue, thereby, executing viable project for the betterment of its citizen who contributed their share through the various taxes imposed on them.
The major sources of the revenue generation are within the area council, that is, incomes are generated through the following ways.
i. External Sources; Statutory allocation from the federal account in accordance with section 160(2) of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.
ii. Statutory allocation from each state government to the local government in its area of jurisdiction, federal grant. In aid, state-grant-in-aid, borrowing from state government and other financial institution.
iii. Internally generated source includes local rates, markets takes and levies, bicycle, truck canoe, wheel barrow e.t.c.
Specific section of the area council, if charged with the responsibilities of tapping the above sources encourages in generating revenue and possible suggest some solution to its effective and management..