ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF CABUY NIGERIA LIMITED LAGOS STATE )
A case study of Cadrury Nigeria Limited, chapter one deal with background of the study, historical background, school of thought on organization structures, sources of data.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: for every research work to be done in a certain field there must be an existing problem. the researches view the finding solution be prevailing problem.
HISTORICAL BACKGOND OF CASE STUDY CADBURY:
nigeria PLc was incorporated on the 9th January 1965 and has been a leading company n confectionary. foods whose quality brands and project are; employed all voer the national as well as i export market anoint the world.
SCHOOL OF THOUGHT ON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE.
There is no amount of discussion about organization structure that is complete without teaching so me of its major theories such as the one propounded (1942) who stressed that organization statement right form the wielding authority and business watch system so also this legitimate authority are lassies into three which are rational traditional and charismatic also D.S puchs (1960) measure the range of degree of centralization standardizations, specialization of authority structure. furthermore, the theory of j woodward (1958) must not be left behind, who along with her core searcher repealed the importance of technology of production in the structure of manufacturing industry she divided the fir into three groups according to their task and technology which are
1. limit and small batch production
2. large batch and mass production
3. process production
Source Of Data
this is personal study carried out in the field to find out some information which is not available in the secondary source.
this data is collected for the same purpose which are normally obtained from source like journals, magazines text books etc.
method of data collection
generally data can be classified into primary and secondary data.
desevation method: observation method of research is mostly used to personally observe the actions of theism research cadbury nigeria plc. lagos is used.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Approval page i
Table of content vi-viii
1.1 Background of the study 1-2
1.2 Historical Background 2-4
1.3 Statement of the Problem 4-5
1.4 Research Question 5-6
1.5 Objective of the Study 6-7
1.6 Scope of the Study 8
1.7 Limitation and Delimitation 8-9
1.8 Definition of Terms 9-10
2.1 School of thought on organization structures 11-16
2.2 Types of organizational structure 16-19
2.3 Element of organizational structure 19-22
2.4 Development in organization theory 22-25
2.5 Formal and informal organization 25-31
Research Design and Methodology
a. Source of Data 32
b. Method of Data Collection 33-34
c. Population and Sample Size 34-35
d. Sampling Method 35-36
e. Research Instruction 36
f. Validity and Research Instrument 36
g. Method of Data Analysis 37
4.1 Data Presentation and Interpretation 38-48
5.0 Summary Conclusion and Recommendation 49
5.1 Summary of Findings 49
5.2 Conclusion 50
5.3 Recommendation 50-51
Sample Questionnaire 53
1.1 BACKGROUD FO THE STUDY
For every research work to be done in a certain field there must be an existing problem. The research view the research as a problem solution process of finding solution be a prevailing problem.
To organize is to arrange the parts so that the whole works as a system or integrated body an organization is usually planned by management in line with the basic activities of the business the principal aims of an organization includes to ensure that every employee is responsible to one person only. That responsibility given to authority. Best use of specialization and individual ability and minimum level of management an organization is defined by devise and filly (1977) as the group of individuals who are cooperating under the direction of an executive or leader for primary purpose of accomplishing certain common objectives.
Formal organization can be seen as a direct opposite of informal organization it is a planed pattern of behaviour designed to achieve an objective.
Formal organization come in to being when people are willing to act to communicate and finally share a purpose.
Informal organization could be defined as any point personal activity without joint purpose informal organization development in order to meet a variety of individual need which is not met informal organization in emergencies, for instance, an informal communication network maker factor decisions possible.
1.2 HISTORICLA BACKGORUND OF CASE STUDY
Adbury Nigeria plc was in corporate on the 9th January, 1965 and engages in food processing business Cadbury has been a leading company in confectionary, foods whose quality brands and projects are enjoyed all over the nation as well as I export market around the world.
A subsidiary of the company Cadbury schlepped group
of united kingdom provides the company with chemical agreement approved by national office technology acquiring and promotion and promotion (N.O. TAT) Cadbury schlepped hold 40% of the issued share capital of the company while the balance is held by the Nigeria public. The registered company of Cadbury Nigeria plc is at lateen japanned road abiding Ikeja, Lagos while it registered and transfer office at united securities limited, Nigeria house (5th floor) 1-5 Odulami street, Lagos lad bury Nigeria plc is principally engaged in the manufacturing and sales of a wide variety of branded fast moving consumer goods mostly to the Nigeria market, but nursing for other market as well each product is carefully designed offer maximum value and enduring benefit and utility for the uses. The care business of the company is in three stream namely food confectionary and food drinks a range of in termed late product, notably sorghum extract, glucose syrup and tomato past are manufactured in dedicated facilities located in Lagos and Job. As earlier said that operation of the company is streamlined into three deal business units. Each of these unit is headed by a business unit. Manager thus, enable the appropriate degree of the in efficiency, quality and service delivery
The key brand in each category includes:
1. Food work season, tom papa, chaff, pepper soup cube and Dadawa.
2. COMFECTION TOMTOM, but ferment ear mettas week trabor mints jourestol poprange and back.
3. food drinks Bourn vita, pronto, chocolate these rand collectively hold a dominant market share in their category.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.
There are many problems confronting and structures of an organization these have been drawn and presented by the researcher with a view to discuss and apply the to know its resultant change such an organization.
Most organization charts are drawn to emphasize the vertical hierarchy, a clear picture of this type of organization shown that all activities are fully centralized from the top level of management this continues to create problem, most especially of the objective to the organization is to money profit not to serve the public for any producing company to succeed it should be capable of deriving way of eliminating delays in production so as to maintain its target.
Some organizations face the problem of winding up and undergrowth due to its illegal nature some companies are limited to certain jobs and merchanolising. We may find out that these companies, if legally operated will expand were of its communication with the outside client and in turn maximize roe profit
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
1. What are the ways to provide efficient working system?
2. How do you provide system of communication
3. Had there been ease of clerk of duties among the organization personals?
4. That are way in which responsibilities are shared
5. Among the personnel? How do you provide satisfaction to individual members of organization.
1.5 OBECTIVES OF THE STUDY
It is very essential to have study of this nature to enhance an even development of an organization since we can see that an organization exists to produce goods and services to satisfy customers.
With the growth in size of modern business, there is need to establish the framework around which the principles of management can be operated. Other wise there will be Chas and inefficiencies.
The following are the reasons for organization structure.
1. One of the importance of this project is to made it to e of value to the research but also to those at present is to make it to be of value to the research but also to these at present practicing personnel. Management as well as those that are fully involved in the organization under standing.
2. To re- organize and develop what desirable information a missing from the case and treat it.
3. To understand the nature and important of the central concept and the field of production and other related organization and the services they rendered to the public.
4. To clearly identify and suggest on problems arising from inefficiencies and bad organizational structure in an organization it is related to how power and authority are delegated in the organization. The case study limited to catbird Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers relevant aspects of the types and importance or organizational structure in an organization it is related to how power and authority are delegated in the organization. The case study is limited to Cadbury Nigeria plc.
1.7 LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION
The scope of this research work is organization structure in formal and informal organization using cabling Nigeria. Plc. As a case study in which the research was limited to a number of revering factor in dynamic and ever changing environment which are discussed and follows.
The researcher therefore decide to Cadbury Nigeria Plc due to the fat that other companies in this country can not be studied with the available short period.
The financial constraints inherent in traveling from one town to another part and from one firm to another made it inevitable to choose one organization as a case study form which inference for generalization can be made.
As at is expected of gives a systematic arrangement of work to be done.
Organization structure it every organization the administrative manager of the company was initially not willing to co-operation due to the researcher in ability to present a cover up letter from the polytechnic.
1.8 DEFINITION OF SOME SPECIFIC TERMS.
Organization: the term organization can be defined as a group of individual working in a mutually dependent relationship towards achieving a stated goal or goals.
Structure: the structure is the anatomy upon which the organization is developed and operated. It is the frame work of responsibility authorities and communicating of individuals in each organization unit, from a singe job division. Their functions and inter- relationship.
The charts: An organization chart is a diacritic presentation of the frame work of structure of a business
Management: this refers to process of getting things done through the use of peoples skills and talents.
Communication: It is the act of sending message from one person to another which stimulates response.
Specialization; The degree to which organization and activities are divided into specialized roles.
Standardizations: the degree to which an organization lays down stated roles and procedures.
Centralizations: The degree to which the authority to make certain decision is allocated at the top of the management hierarchy.
Decentralization: the degree to which the authority to make certain decision is dispread among individuals at the middle and lower management level.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW.
2.1 SCHOOL OF THOUGHT ON ORGANIZATINAL STRUCTURE.
There is no amount of discussion about organizational structure that is complete without touching some of its major theories, such as the one propounded by maxima be (1947) who stressed that organizations. Stemmed right from the wielding authority and bureaucratic system so also this legitimate authority are classified into three which are rational traditional and charismatic.
Also D.S. puchs (1966) measures the range of degree of centralization. Standardization. Specialization of authority structure.
Furthermore, the theory of J. Woodward (19580 must not be left behind, who along with her co-researchers repealed the importance of technology of production in the structure of manufacturing industry.
She divided the firm into three groups according to their task and technology which are:
Unit and small batch production
Large batch and mass production
Three school of thought have been identified as having considerable influence on management process and practices these are:
1. The classical school
2. The behevioura/ human school
3. The system school
The classical school of though approach consist of the work of Fredrick Taylor, max weber, jean ward and others, this school of thought it of the view that work or task should be so organization so as to accomplished efficiency and objectives of the organization. Their key emphasis and the efficiency of work, however has been variously accused particularly for their strong emphasis on the thing aspect of organization.
The classes people as the means through which organization objectives. Can be achieved. The school appears to have neglected the interplay of individual personality informal groups, writer organization conduct and decision making process.
Also among others the features of the classical school.
They believe in one central authority they believe in the principle of delegation of authority that the span of control should be well defined..