THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON MALATHION TOXICITY ON THE BRAIN OF MALE WISTAR RAT.


THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON MALATHION TOXICITY ON THE BRAIN OF MALE WISTAR RAT.    

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Approval Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Declaration    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Table of Contents    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    -    -    -    -    -   

1.2    Statement of the Problem    -    -    -    -   

1.3    Objectives of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.4    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.5    Research Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.6    Significance of the Study    -    -    -    -    -   

1.7    Scope of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -   

1.8    Limitations of the Study    -    -    -    -    -

1.9    Definition of Terms    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

2.2    Theoretical Framework    -    -    -    -    -   

2.3    Conceptual Framework    -    -    -    -    -   

2.4    Empirical Review    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

3.2    Research Design    -    -    -    -    -    -   

3.3    Population of Study    -    -    -    -    -    -   

3.4    Sample size and Sampling Techniques    -    -    -   

3.5    Method of Data Collection    -    -    -    -    -   

3.6    Research Instrument

3.7    Validity of the Instrument    -    -    -    -    -   

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument    -    -    -    -   

3.9    Sampling Method    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis    -    -    -    -   

4.3    Testing Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -   

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

5.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

5.3    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -   

    References -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -   

Appendix    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.           Background to the Study:

The single-dose acute oral toxicity test is used in preliminary evaluation of virtually all substances of suspected biological activity. The test is based on administration of graded dosage of chemical in relation to body mass. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which is registered for agricultural uses and for landscape maintenance, vector control, and structural pest control (Cheeseman et al., 2004). This assessment of potential dietary exposures addresses the residues that may occur as a result of agricultural uses of malathion. Organophosphate compounds inhibit the activity of cholinesterase which is an enzyme present in several body tissues and essential for the normal function of nerves.

Selenium belongs to essential microelements. Being a constituent of one of the main antioxidant enzymes – glutathione peroxidase - it is considered to be an antioxidant (Cheeseman et al., 2004). Its possible application as a protective agent against toxic metals and compounds as well as against oxidative stress have already been studied and the outcomes have seemed to be encouraging (Brugh, 2008). Selenium alone or in combination with vitamin E has already been found to prevent oxidative stress in brain of animals exposed to cigarette smoke (Tiwaryand, 2005) chromium (Chowdhury et al., 2005) and mercury (Oser, 2005).

In living systems, oxidation is a basic part of the normal metabolic process, in which reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid) and many free radicals (hydroxyl radical (OH) and superoxide anion) are generated. Rapid production of free radicals may cause alteration in the structure and function of cell constituents and membranes and can results in human neurologic and other disorders such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, asthma, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, and premature aging. Therefore, the prevention of the above conditions requires the presence of antioxidants or the free radical scavenging molecules in the body.

1.2.           Statement of the Problem

Exposure of test animals or humans to sufficient dosages of malathion and its primary active metabolite, malaoxon, may result in subsequent signs of toxicity, such as salivation and sweating. Antioxidants are natural or synthetic compounds, produced in vivo, normal cell constituents, ordelivered in diets, whose main function is to fight against oxidative stress (Creighton et al., 2003), being thus able to either delay or prevent the oxidation of substrates, such as proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), lipids, DNA mutations, malignant transformations, as well as other parameters of cell damage (Luna, 2008).

Due to the role of hepatocytes in the metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, these cells become the target of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), giving reactive oxygenated metabolites (ROM), requiring, therefore, an important antioxidant defense system (Krzystyniak et al., 2005). Among these antioxidant systems, stands out glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cellular thiol antioxidant, which exhibits numerous and versatile functions and therefore protects cells against toxicity (Prescott et al., 2002).From the above background, the study therefore examine Subacute malathion toxicity and amelioration of selenium and antioxidant on brain histology of male wistar rat

1.3       Aim / Objective of Study:

To study the antioxidant effect of selenium on malathion toxicity on the brain of male wistar rat.

1.3.1.  Specific Objectives

Its specific objectives are;

To evaluate effects of malathion in the brain of male wistar rats. To evaluate ameliorating effects of selenium on malathion in the brain of male wistarrats. To examine microstructural changes in the brain of male wistar rats administered with malathion.

1.4      Hypotheses

Subacute administration of malathion on male wistar rat may change the enzymatic activities of antioxidant the brain.

1.5       Scope of Study

 The scope of this project work involves the investigation of malathion toxicity and antioxidant activity of selenium on the brain of male wistar rats.

1.6       Significance of the Study:

The relevance of this study lies on the importance it provides on the ameliorating effect of selenium regarding the toxicity of malathion in the brain which could be useful to the general public.

.

THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON MALATHION TOXICITY ON THE BRAIN OF MALE WISTAR RAT.



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.