The primary aim of this project is to show the importance of Rice in our Country is embarked upon to examine the various ways in which Rice can be used for the production of snacks and bread in restaurant menu. Also to know the usefulness of rice and how it can be turned into fine flour to make snacks and bread.


Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Historical Background 2

1.2 Statement of the study 4

1.3 Significant of the study 6

1.4 Aims and Objective 6

1.5 Scope and Limitation 7

1.6 Need for study 8

1.7 Definition of terms 8


2.0 Literature review 10


3.0 Research Methodology 22


4.0 Analysis and Presentation of Data 28


5.1 Summary 36

5.2 Conclusion 39

5.3 Recommendations 40




The word “Flour” is a fine powder obtained by grinding in our day to day activities. Flour is used in the production of snack, bread and all sorts of convenient food. Unfortunately, people think that wheat is the only cereal used in the production of flour. 

Rice is defined by Webster’s dictionary (oryzasativa) as annual cereal grass widely cultivated for its seeds used for human food. It is one of the world’s most important food crops. Where it is eaten every day and sometimes twice a day, is undoubtedly next in order of importance to wheat as food crop.

The rice grain has approximately the same botanical structure as wheat grain.

Introducing local cereal i.e. rice as partial research work. The mixture of wheat and rice flour is know as “composite flour”. After the production, the end product might not be like wheat flour but as good as that of wheat and even more nutrition’s.


Rice production originated in China, and was spread to countries such as Srilanka and India. It is believed that rice was brought to West Asia and Greece in 300 B.C. by Alexander the greats armies.

In 800 A.D, people in east Africa traded with people from India and Indonesia and were introduced to rice.

It is hard to say exactly how rice was brought over to North America. One story says that a damaged ship was forced to clock in the Carolinas. In return for repairs, the captain of the ship gave the colonizers a bag of rice. In addition, it is believed that slaver from Africa brought rice from their land. In 1700, 300 tons of American rice was shipped to England. After the civil war came to an end, Rice was produced all over the south. In the United States, rice is mainly grown in California, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana.

The United States has adopted new technology and machinery to produce rice. On average it takes about 7 man hours per acre to cultivate rice. In Asia, it can take 300 man hours to cultivate an care of rice. On average an American consumer around 25 pounds of rice a year. In parts of Asia a person can consumer between 200 and 400 pounds of rice a year.

Rice can be grown in a multitude of conditions it can be grown in desert lands as well as methods. The rice plant can grow to be between two and six feet tall.

There are different varieties of rice grown in the world. They differ in shape, size and colour of grains, the west Africa types of rice and brown, yellow and red. Before the introduction of Oryza saeiva some 67 years age, red rice derived form the indigenous West Africa Cultivated species Oryza. Glaberrima was grown and it is still grown on unprepared plan in Mali, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. Commercially, the two types of rice recognize and the white and red but generally the white types are preferred and bring much higher price in most markets.  

Rice if best grown in the naturally humid condition provided by coanial plains and river basin and river Delta regions. It is sometimes grown on land which has been deliberately swamped to facilitate its cultivation.

Rice is eaten by man, cattle and poultry and is also use din the manufacture of starch and beer. Rice has good storage qualities and can be easily transported from one place to another.


The problem facing the integration of rice flour in the production of snacks is due to the following.

1. Ignorance seems from the facts that some people are not knowledgeable due to poor orientation in the start of life. People have been so used to wheat flour and introducing another flour  gotten from cereal a tuber crops, will be a great surprise because they always think that flour used for snacks can only be gotten from wheat and no other crop. Thereby purchasing of the rice flour will be minimized, because people will not know the proper way to use it, the proportion to use, to acquire a good output, in other words, ignorance make them think no other flour can be good as that of wheat flour.

2. Time constraint people feel if we use our local product, processing will have to be considered, using our locally produced rice, stone will have to be removed first, then wash thoroughly to remove the remaining stones. It will then be dried in the sun, after which will be taken to grinding machine that will grind it in to fine flour, and this will take a lot of time.

Those that are impatient may not have the time for this processing. They will prefer the ready made flour (wheat flour) that can be easily bought in the market.


The research work is intended to improve self reliance on our locally produced products and minimize if possible, the use of importated flour. E.g. wheat, barley oat etc. the proper incorporation of ingredient to produce quality and acceptable snacks that will increase sale while the cost of production automatically will reduce.


The aims and objective of this research work is to find out the various ways by which quality of diets based on which rice can be improved. This project work is therefore carried out to achieve the following aims.

i. To produce variety of snacks and bread using composite flour (Rice + Flour)

ii. To create awareness on the uses of rice for production of snacks and bread in home and hotels.

iii. To examine the various cookery method in rice product


This project work will be limited to the use of rice and little amount of wheat flour due to result of the following factors.

i. Time constraints: Due to lack of time, only few of local product will be used.

ii. Lack of fund. Due to the fact that there is lack of fund, the project will be limited to some product.

iii. Seasonal occurrence : Due to the fact that some of our cash crops may be scarce at a particular period, only available ones will be used for this project work.


The need for study of this project is to enlighten caterers and food handlers on how to use our local cereal crops i.e. rice in the production of flour and also to teach them on how to integrate this flour with other locally produced crop flour.

Finally to discourage food handlers or caterers on the excessive spending on wheat flour.


Cereal - A kind of grain

Composite flour - Mixture of two or more flour

Graminea          - Scientific name for the class to    which cereal and grain belong to.

Acreage - Area of a place of land measured in acreas

Perennial - Lasting through the whole year.

Irrigation - To supply water to dry land especially by providing with man-made streams.

Species - A group of plant that are of the  same kind which are like in all important ways.

Nursery - An area where plants and trees are grown to be sold or planted in other places.

Transplanting - To move a plant from one place and plant in another.




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