Title Page




Table of content



1.1 Background to the study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Aim and objectives of the study

1.4 Significance of the study

1.5 Research questions

1.6 Scope of the study

1.7 Limitation of the study

1.8 Study plan

1.9 Definitions of key terms


2.1 Definition of Leadership and Leadership Style

2.2 Leadership Theories

2.2.1 Great Man/Traits Approach to Leadership

2.2.2 Behavioural Approach to Leadership

2.2.3 situational Approach to Leadership

2.2.4 Fielders Contingency Approach to Leadership

2.3 Leadership Styles and Behaviour

2.3.1 Leadership Styles Based on the use of Authority

2.3.2 Likert’s Four System

2.3.3 Managerial Grid


3.1 Historical Background of PHCN PLC

3.2 Research Hypothesis

3.3 Methods of Data Collection

3.4 Population and Sample Size

3.5 Sampling Techniques

3.6 Methods of Data Analysis


4.1 Demographic Characteristics Analysis

4.2 Leadership Styles Analysis


5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion 

5.3 Recommendation





1.1 Background to the Study

The performance of any enterprise or the life spans of an organization, whether large or small is directly proportional to the finality of its leadership. In the light of fact, an organization or community will only succeed, towards the achievement of a group goal, only if the reign of a leader exists. Thus; a leader is someone who has the ability to inspire, motivate and use power effectively and in a responsible manner towards the achievement of a goal considering this, leadership can simply be define as the act or process of influencing people, so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of a group goals.

Yusuf (2001) argues that the ability of any organization to achieve its desire goals and objectives depends on the nature of its leadership. However empirical evidence has tends to show that leadership plays very significant roles in effective and efficiency of any organization. Ogunsan 91985) and Ochia (1987) admitted in their study that leadership skill were very effective in enhancing performance. Hence, leadership has a significant managerial factors and ingredients in the success of any organization.

Ingredient of Leadership

A. The ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner.

B. The ability to inspire

C. The ability to comprehend that human being has different motivational forces at different time and in different situation.

D. The ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate conducive to responding to and arousing motivation.

Thus, the move a leader understand what motivate their subordinate and how these motivation operate the better the actualization of a group goal, David Mann (1985) sees styles of leadership as some of the basic requirement for achieving good management, administration and good leadership. Leadership styles may be defined as a designing pattern of behaviour used in integrating both the organization and personal interest in achieving the organization aim and objectives. Furthermore, these styles of leadership are many but three are commonly in used in most establishment; free vein leadership style, autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style. It is generally believed that good leadership style will increase organizational performance, lower unit cost, high morale sustain and improve management- labour relationship (Nwachukwu 1988).

1.2 Statement to the Study

Over the year, scholar have extensively research on the effective leadership styles in an organization. Prominent among then are Stodgill, Fieldler Likert, Blade and Monton, Tennenbaum and so forth.

Leadership have been seen involving a variety of styles, ranging from one that is highly boos-centered to that is highly subordinate with suggestion that no one style is always right and another is not always wrong in the context of business and services industries to achieve goals. More so, for manager or leader at appropriate leadership styles in an establishment, some situational factors need to be considered. These include position power, task structure and leader member relations.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study\

The aim of this research is to examine critically the impact of leadership style on organizational performance.

The objectives of this study are as follows:

1. To explain what is meant by leadership style

2. To describe various types of leadership style

3. To examine how leadership styles can improve organizational performance and create good leader member relations.

4. To make recommendations as to how leadership style can exercise positive impact on organizational performance.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The importance of the research study is:

1. It helps to identify leadership style to be put forth by the manager in the organization, to ensure high moral and high performance among the staff of PHCN Plc Ilorin.

2. The study identifies the advantages and disadvantages associated with different leadership styles under particular condition.

3. Finally, it point out how motivational forces affects the performance of staff.

1.5 Research Questions 

It is unlikely that a leadership style that worked yesterday would be successful in today’s administration. Considering this 3 major questions’ what, where & how are being asked.

1. What is the current situation of the organization? What leadership style is in use? What changes are expected by adopting a new leadership style?

2. Where are we taking the organization? How much growth do we need? What is the targeted goal? What are the social objectives of the organization?

3. How can we get there from here? This is the important part of question, as it proffer the leadership style to be adopted which in turn give solution to the above other question asked.

4. Task structure – how does a task structure affect the subordinate performance?

5. What are the impact of highly based – centered and their subordinate?

6. The effect of the degree of freedom granted to subordinate by their leader.

The following research questions are set out purpose of this study. 

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research examines the impact of leadership style on organizational performance of power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) formally NEPA, Ilorin between the period of 1999 to 2007 with strict emphasis on administration, marking and distribution section of the organization, as they are the major focus on the achievement of the organization goals.

1.7     Limitation of the Study

There are certain limitations encountered in the course of carrying out this research they include.

1. Lukewarm attitude of the officials of PHCN in responding to the questionnaire.

2. Fears of espionage as all vital information are classified as “TOP SECRET” because of government protocol.

3. Improper filling of questionnaire by the respondents

4. Long delays in getting back the filled questionnaire from the respondent as a result of busy schedule at work.

It should be noted, however that the limitations outlined above does not in anyway in validate this  research as sufficient data was obtained through insider friend and good human relation, therefore the research is still valid.

1.7 Study Plan

This research project is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction, which consists of the background, research problems, aim and objectives, significance, research questions, scope, limitations, study plan and definition of terms.

Chapter two is the literature review, which comprised of definitions of leadership and leadership styles, leadership theories and leadership styles  and behaviours.

1.8 Key Terms

1. Autocratic: A leader who has complete power and expecting complete obedience.

2. Amalgamation: To combine or join together

3. Benevolent: Doing good or being kindliness

4. Boss: A manager or leader in Chief

5.Consultative: A state of meeting with someone to exchange idea and opinions (Discussion)

6. Decentralized: The process of moving power/decision making away from a single large group to other small local group.

7. Democratic: Ruling or leading people through decision by 

their group or people.

8. Dogmatic: Act of being stubborn and forcing opinion on others.

9. Enterprise: A business

10. Exploitative: To make use of something selfishly.

11. Goal: Anything aimed a t or wished for

12. Impoverished: To make something poor or lesion in quality

13. Leader: One who shows way on direct or guide or persuade

14. Leadership: Ability to lead

15. Manager: Someone in charge of a business

16. Motivation: To cause someone to act in a certain way

17. Non Coercive: To cause someone to act in a certain way

18. Organization: A group of people working together for a purpose.

19. Participative: To have a share or take part.

20. Style: Manner of acting

21. Subordinate: Someone lowers in rank



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