ROUTE SURVEY OF THE STRETCH OF ROAD FROM ORIAWO ALONG OGBOMOSO ROAD, OYO TO SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, SABO OYO TOWN, ATIBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OYO STATE
The project was focused on the execution of route surveying for the purpose of road reconstruction from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Stations were selected along the existing route at regular intervals as in the specifications
Theodolite traverse was run over stations, while levels were observed along the longitudinal and cross-sections of the traverse lines. All data were gathered with effective orientation from the controls, these were used to produce the plans (with appropriate scale) showing horizontal alignment, profile and cross-sections.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………i
LIST OF FIGURE x
LIST OF TABLES xi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 2
1.3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.3.1 AIM Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.3.2 OBJECTIVES 2
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 3
1.6 PERSONNEL 4
1.7 STUDY AREA 4
CHAPTER TWO 6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
PRELIMINARY SURVEY 9
LOCATION SURVEY 9
OFFICE LOCATION: - 9
CHAPTER THREE 12
3.0 METHODOLOGY 12
3.1 RECONNAISSANCE 12
3.1.1 OFFICE PLANNING 12
3.1.2 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE 13
3.2 DATA ACQUISITION 15
3.2.1 EQUIPMENT USED 15
3.2.2 TEST OF INSTRUMENT 16
22.214.171.124 LEVEL INSTRUMENT TEST (TWO PEG TEST) 16
3.2.3 CONTROL CHECK 18
126.96.36.199 SELECTION OF STATIONS 22
188.8.131.52 MONUMENTATION 22
3.2.4 FIELD OBSEVATION 22
184.108.40.206 ANGULAR MEASUREMENT 23
220.127.116.11 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 24
18.104.22.168 LEVELING 24
22.214.171.124 DETAILING 26
CHAPTER FOUR 28
4.0 DATA PROCESSING AND RESULT ANALYSIS 28
4.1 FIELD BOOKS REDUCTIONS 28
4.1.1 HORIZONTAL ANGLE REDUCTION 28
4.1.2 VERTICAL ANGLE REDUCTION 29
4.1.3 LINEAR MEASUREMENT REDUCTION 29
4.2.1 FORWARD COMPUTATION 30
126.96.36.199 BEARING REDUCTION 30
188.8.131.52 CORRECTION TO BEARING 30
184.108.40.206 COORDINATES REDUCTION 30
220.127.116.11 COORDINATES ADJUSTMENTS 31
4.2.2 BACK COMPUTATION 31
4.2.3 LEVELING COMPUTATION AND ADJUSTMENTS 32
18.104.22.168 LEVELING ADJUSTMENT 33
4.2.4 ACCURACY 33
22.214.171.124 ANGULAR ACCURACY 33
126.96.36.199 LEVELING ACCURACY 34
188.8.131.52 LINEAR ACCURACY 34
4.3 RESULT ANALYSIS 35
4.4 EXTRACT OF RESULT 36
4.6 INFORMATION PRESENTATION (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) 36
4.6.1 PLAN PRODUCTION 37
4.6.2 MANUAL PLOTTING 37
4.6.3 DIGITAL PLOTTING 37
CHAPTER FIVE 38
5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 38
5.1 SUMMARY 38
5.2 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED 38
5.3 CONCLUSION 38
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 39
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1.1: Study Area diagram Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.1 Recce Diagram 14
Figure 3.2: Leveling instrument set up mid-way (first set -up) 17
Figure 3.3: Leveling instrument set up( second set up) 17
Figure 3.4 Initial control check observations 19
Figure 3.6 A typical monument used 22
Figure 3.7: Longitudinal sections leveling. 25
Figure 3.8: Cross sectional leveling. 25
Fig.: 3.9 – Illustration of detailing by tacheometry method 27
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Coordinates of existing ground controls used 12
Table 3.2 Collimation test 16
Table 3.3: Initial control check observation. 19
Table 3.4: Back computation of initial control used 20
Closing control check observation. 20
Back computation of initial control used 21
Table 4.1 Sample of Horizontal angle reduction 29
Table 4.1 Back computation of traverse pegs 32
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Engineering Surveying is one of the branches of surveying which from the general express for any survey work carried out in connection with construction engineering and building project, it is a large scale topographical map survey which the basis for design of engineering works such as highways, railways, canals, tunnels, dams, pipelines and transmission lines.
In the word of engineering and environmental studies, surveying has been recognized as the inevitable operation been described as be the bedrock of every meaningful development. The greater part of its responsibility is seen from the various types of surveying which are all geared toward promoting route ways, convenience, accessibility and spatial declination of both natural and social environment. In addition, surveying means the activities of planning, designing, constructions, development and rehabilitation of roads, depending on the survey data required by the surveyor.
Route survey which is an aspect of engineering survey may be defined as the survey operation that is done for the establishment of the horizontal and vertical alignment of transportation facilities. It involved: planning, design and setting out of any route such as railways, highways, pipelines and canals etc. as obtained by a surveyor and it also involved the proper assessment of natural and man-made features.
In addition, this type of survey should be applied when there is need for alignment, expansion, or rehabilitation at any existing route (road) e.g. for traffic purposes. The reason is that route survey provides a plan/map that shows the alignment, details, profile and cross sectional leveling which depicts the nature of the terrain of a given strip of land which serves the purpose of location, design and construction of route networks.
Good road network is one of the basic amenities needed by human being as movement is one of the characteristics of living things. There are needs for people to move from one place to the other and transportation of goods and services. Therefore for any meaningful development in a country, good road is a must.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE PROJECT
It was discovered that the route from Oyun to olorun village moro Local government Ilorin, Kwara State, had been badly eroded and full of potholes; also, the road is found to be too narrow and needed to be extended considering the volume of traffic plying the road. Rehabilitation of this road should be carried out in other to increase its carrying capacity thereby increase the physical development and human activities therein. Due to these, certain information about the road must be acquired which calls for route survey so as to get the baseline data necessary for the road design.
The main aim of this project is:
To carry-out Route Survey of Oyun-Oloru road in Moro local government area, Ilorin, Kwara State
In actualization of the said aim of the project, the following objectives
Were followed sequentially:
(i) Reconnaissance which include office planning and field reconnaissance.
(ii) Identification of existing features and adjoining roads.
(iii) Stability of the ground controls to be use for orientation.
(iv) Determination of centre line and marking of chainages along the centre line at an interval of 25m.
(v) Marking out some selected points for the cross-sectioning at intervals of 3m to the right and left on the profile and also the edges of drainage was marked.
(vi) Leveling to determine the height of some selected points along the road.
(vii) Detailing by the use of a total station Mato NTS352R
(viii) Plan production (graphical representation of the surveyed road way) drawn with appropriate scale.
(ix) Reports write up.
1.4 PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS
The following are the specification to be ascertained in the project:
(i) Traverse must commence on three coordinated (known) controls and closed on another set of three coordinated controls which must be confirmed undisturbed by necessary measurement (control checks).
(ii) Third order theodolite traverse must be run along the route on all turning points at one zero observation and the angular difference from both faces should not be more than thirty seconds (30"), the angular misclosure is determined by 30"√n,
Where ‘n’ is the total number of station observed.
(iii) Establishing traverse points by using pegs together with nails and bottle corks.
(iv) Spirit leveling must commence on a known benchmark and closed back on another known benchmark. Formulae for its misclosure are ±24mm√k, where ‘k’ is the total distance covered in kilometers.
(v) Leveling must be observed at every 25m intervals on the centre line and at 5m intervals on both sides of the centre line for the cross sectioning. Edges of drainage at both sides should be heightened.
(vi) Fixing of relevant features to enhance assessment and necessary composition for good interpretation of plan.
(vii) Setting out curve by using deflection angle method within third other survey.
(viii) The accuracy of the project must fall within the order of the project.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The entire project covered the following:-
(i) Reconnaissance (both office planning and field reconnaissance).
(ii) Data acquisition:
(a) Selection of stations.
(b) Traverse angular observation and data recording.
(c) Linear measurement with the aid of Mato NTS352R total station.
(d) Spirit leveling of traverse centre line and adjacent sides (longitudinal or profile and cross sectioning).
(e) Fixing of details by tacheometry method.
(iii)Computations to determine:
(a) Horizontal coordinates (i.e. x and y coordinates)
(b) Vertical coordinates (i.e. z coordinates) by level reduction.
(c) Setting out angles and distance for the curve.
(iii) Data analysis i.e. comparing result obtained with the required accuracy.
(iv) Data presentation :
(a) Production of horizontal alignment (i.e. plan showing existing features and the propose route).
(b) Production of longitudinal section plan
(c) Production of cross section plan
(d)Project report writing: - This involves writing of detail report in connection with entire project done in conformity with the outline given by the project supervisor.
The underlisted names are the personnel that participated in the execution of this project. They are:
1. ABDUL RAHEEM SADIAT FUNKE HND/16/SGI/FT/001 (writer)
2. ADENIYI ADEBOWALE OLUMIDE HND/16/SGI/FT/025
3. AWONIRAN SAKIRU OPEYEMI HND/16/SGI/FT/015
4. HAMMED KAZEEM BOLAJI HND/16/SGI/FT/018
1.7 STUDY AREA
The project site is the route from Oyun to olorun village moro Local Government area Ilorin, Kwara State. It cover approximately 3.km extent of land.
MAP OF MORO LGA
ImageImageMAP OF NIGERIA
MAP OF KWARA ST
Figure 1.7.1 : study area diagram Moro Local Government Ilorin Kwara State
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Surveying began in Babylon and Egypt in the form of field measurements. The great pyramids which are mystery hitherto could not have been built without the knowledge of surveying principles in spite of the conflicting views about its physical construction. The Egyptians used stones to mark boundaries of their farmland along Nile valley as temporary beacons even though the beacons used to be washed away later. This led to proper and solid demarcation of boundries by permanent beacons (Clark, 1972).
Barnister and Raymond (1977) defined surveying as the art of making measurement of relative position of natural and man-made features on the earth surface and the plotting of the measurements to some suitable scale to form a map, plan or chart.
Thomas & Noriman (1961) defined engineering surveying as expression for any survey work carried out in connection with the construction of civil engineering and building project. He also stated that engineers and surveyor involved in site surveying are responsible for all aspect of dimensional control on such schemes. According to Norman the main purpose of engineering surveying are:
(i) To provide large scale topographical maps/plans and other measurements at the conceptual and design stage.
(ii) To provide precise framework at the construction stage.
(iii) To monitor structural movement on major retaining structure at the post construction stage.
Wilson (1977) believed that when there is need for design of route to be carried out, different type of plans must be acquired to enable such design to be approximately done; such plan may be cadastral and topographical in nature.
Also, engineering surveying is divided into design-data-survey and construction survey. A design- data –survey is an orderly process of obtaining data that is needed for the planning and design of an engineering report. The activities involved in design-data surveying vary according to the type and existing owner of the engineering or construction project. For example, the activities might include simply obtaining topographic data for a proposed building site or they may include extensive route surveying and soil investigation for a highway.
A route survey as the name implies is a survey that deals with the route or course that imaginary road or utility line will follow while the end product of a route survey for a highway certainly differs from that of a utility line, it may nevertheless be said that the purpose of the route survey are to:
(i) Selection one or more tentative general route for the roadway or utility.
(ii) Gather enough information about the general route to make it possible for designers to select the final location of the route.
(iii) Mark this final location.
Reginnal (1968) defined route survey as the survey necessary for the location and construction of lines of transportation or communication such as highways, canals, transmission lines and pipelines. He stated that the location and construction survey may consist of:
(i) Establishing the centre line by setting at intervals and running level to determine profile of the ground along the centre line
(ii) Taking cross section
(iii) Plotting such profile and fixing grades
(iv) Calculating volume of earthwork
(v) Measurement of drainage areas
(vi) Laying out structures such as bridges and culverts.
The execution of route surveying entails some basic processes as far as data acquisition is concerned. These are outlined as follows:
(iv) Curve designation
Traverse is a sequence of connected straight lines whose direction and distances have been measured. Traverse is also the process of connecting series of lines with known bearings and distances. It is subdivided into first order for precise measurement and second order for the establishment of secondary controls while the third order is meant for survey of tertiary and topographical features.
Basak (2000) explained leveling as the art of determining the relative vertical heights of different point on the earth surface.
Detailing is defined as the process of fixing topographical features to the survey line. Any of these under listed methods could be used:
(1) Chain survey method (tie line and offset)
(2) Plane table survey method
(3) Compass survey method
(4) Tacheometric method
(5) By the use of total station
Robert (2000) stated that designing of route without a large scale and up-to-date mapping through dense vegetation is a challenge.
He further explained that aerial photograph is very unpunctual and may not give the expected results but air borne lidar of remote sensing techniques could be more accurate, faster, reduce the required ground survey control.
Brinker and minick (1987) stated that tunnels, dams, sewer lines, pipelines and transmission lines are engineering construction works having linear shapes which are classified as route. Hence, route survey as a unique system for expressing route geometry has developed to a broad range used in executing project by all surveyors, designers and contractors.
It was narrated by Vincent-Tao and El-Sheimy (2000) that the best way of acquiring data and information during the survey for the purpose of rehabilitation of a highway route could be done using mobile mapping system.
A comprehensive route survey consists of some operations which are:
(2) Preliminary survey
(3) Location survey
(4) Construction survey
A reconnaissance is a rapid and rough survey in which a thorough examination of the area through which the proposed survey line is to run is conducted to ascertain the best routes and the approximate cost of the project. The reconnaissance survey is the key to the project and therefore must be done under the supervision of an experienced engineer who should be unbiased, resourceful, and gifted with aptitude of engineering projects and having wide power of observation for the present as well as for the future requirements.
The first step in reconnaissance survey is to collect the available map and aerial photography of the area. Various possible routes are marked on the map keeping the general topography of the area in mind. The area under consideration is examined in detail in order to assess the feasibility and relative merits of all the possible routes.
In the second step of reconnaissance, approximate elevation and distances are measured. The directions and angles are also measured by using magnetic compass..