EVALUATION OF POWER DENSITY OF RAY EMISSIONS FROM GSM MASTS IN SELECTED LOCATIONS OF ILORIN METROPOLIS
The evaluation of power density of ray emissions from GSM masts in selected locations within Ilorin metropolis were carried out. The measurements taken in each spot were done using Acoustimeter. The location that shows the highest peak measurement (5.12 ± 1.07) location H, which exceeded the international approved exposure limits which is 4.1mW/m2.
This research shows that there are some areas within Ilorin metropolis where these GSM antennas are installed and is emitting high radiations which could cause several hazards to Human Health.
LIST OF TABLE AND FIGURE
Showing studied locations in Ilorin metropolis.
Showing the Duncan multiple range tests of power density of GSM mast emissions.
Showing the ranges in power density of ray emission from GSM mast in study locations.
Showing bar charts of the trends in the measurement of power densities in all the ten study locations.
TABLE OF CONTENT
List of tables and figures
Table of content
Introduction and literature review
Materials and method
Choice of location
Sampling period and apparatus
Duncan multiple range test (Table)
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
The world is fast becoming a global village, courtesy of communication, especially the telecommunications of which the Global System for Mobile Telecommunications (GSM) is a major factor. This wireless telephone system has brought several improvements to human lives across the globe, from the rural areas to urban areas, from the learned/educated to the uneducated, from the poor to the rich. There have been great increased trends in the socio-economic growth as high attention has shifted on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at homes, organizations and nations. In Nigeria today, experts have expressed concern over the environmental and health implications of the increasing mounting of telecommunications infrastructures indiscriminately especially around schools and homes (Punch Newspapers, 2010)
There have been several reports on the hazards associated with mobile phone antennae or base stations, for instance Goldsworthy (2006) reported that detailed studies have shown that weak electromagnetic fields, such as is used in the GSM transmission can cause leaking of cell membranes, leading to fragmentation of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cells. This genetic damage may result in several abnormalities in future organisms.
Santini et al (2003), Wolf and Wolf (2004) and Hutter et al (2006) have variously reported on the biological effects of people exposed to radiations from GSM masts/antennae. Such people’s complaints includes:
⦁ Fatigue problems.
⦁ Ocular problems.
⦁ Anxiety and sleeping problems.
⦁ Memory loss.
They argued that these complaints can cause enormous damage to human health, hence the need to pay attention on solving this problem to save humanity.
Loscher and Kas (1998) reported the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on dairy cows while McLeod et al (1987) had reported that these radiation cause drastic changes in the patterns of locomotion of diatoms.
In a report on the potential health risk due to telecommunications radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposures in Lagos state, Nigeria. Aweda et al (2009) reported that the measured RFR power close to radio and television mast and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases but there are concerns on the risk associated with the use of mobile phones.
Ibitoye and Aweda (2011) in their report on the assessment of radiofrequency power density distribution of GSM and broadcast antenna masts in Lagos city, Nigeria observed that the power densities of the RF Radiation from telecoms transmitting and receiving antenna were far below the international standard limits. They concluded that the values observed were not likely capable of inducing significant hazardous health effects among people that are at least 6m away from the antennae. They took their measurements within 250 - 200meters from selected antennae and obtained range of results from 0.219 - 304.40mW/m2.
In an assessment report of radiofrequencies radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana, Deatanyah et al (2012) reported a range from 0.85 to 1.07mW/m2 for 900MHz antennae. 0.78 – 1.19mW/m2 for 1800MHz antennae these were results obtained from 46 towns and 76 GSM cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. Especially in residential areas, schools and market places. These values, they reported were significantly very low to the international limit. Also Viel et al (2009) reported from France on the residential exposure of radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations and broadcast transmitters; a population based survey with personal meter showed that field strength recorded were generally below 0.05V/m (0.006mW/m2).
The GSM transmit by the low frequency electromagnetic radiation exhibiting a pulsating pattern to transmit both voice and data information. The base stations serve as the intermediate between the caller and the recipient. The base station is a complex system with several components meant to receive and transmit signals. Depending on the distance, several antennae may be involved in the transmission of signals between the caller and the receiver.
The GSM was launched in Nigeria in 2001 and from this period, there have been increase in the number of masts installations across the country. These, apart from posing environmental threats, are believed to be hazardous to both human and other life forms. This fear has also attracted attention all over the world.
In view of the above concern, the aim of this project work is to access the field strength of GSM mast emissions in some locations within Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State and to ascertain if they fall within the safety limit recommended intermediately.
Plate 1: Typical 900MHz GSM Masts used in Nigeria
MOBILE PHONE TRANSSMISSION MASTS (BASE STATION)
The greater concern among the public over proximity of masts rather than the use of handsets even by children, is understandable. The apparent unrestrained proliferation of masts and antennas, in some cases with minimal public consultation, has led to suspicion and organized protest, particularly where these facilities have been sited or have been planned to be sited near schools, child care centres and like. Masts often represent a visual obtrusion and the sheer number of antennas on a mast shared by several carriers encourages the casual observer to assume that the EMFS can be focused or at least enhanced in particular locations. Although the levels, when measured are indeed very low, the continous and whole body nature of the exposure gives the concerns some justifications. however it must be remembered that mobile phone transmissions, along with radio, TV, and other communications networks. (Eltiti et al, 2007)
Mobile phones and towers Emits electromagnetic radiation having health effects which can be divided into thermal and non-thermal. Thermal effect refers to heating effect which you observe if you hold the phone for long near ear.
Non-thermal effects on the cells genes and the DNA are more harmful than thermal effects.
Excessives use of mobiles can lead to headache, sleep disturbance, lack of concentration, memory loss,tinnitus(ringing in the ears) and increased risk of brain cancer(Eltiti et al.,2007).
Having mobile towers in your neighbourhood can also pose health problems like severe headache,sleep disturbance,constant body pain,memory problems, joint pains e.t.c. The more severe health effects noted include infertility, miscarriage neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer parkinson) heart problems and cancer (Santini, 2003).
Several surveys have found a variety of self reported symptoms for people who live close to base stations (Hutter et al 2006)
The base station system is composed to two parts;
1. The base transceiver stations (BTS)
2. The base station controller (BSC)
The BTS and BSC communicates across the specified interface, enabling operations between components of BBS may consist of four to seven or nine cells. A BSS may have one or more base stations. the BSS uses the interface between the BTS and the BSC.
A separate high speed line (T1 AND E1) is then connected from the BSS to the mobile MS.
THE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION (BTS)
The BTS houses the radio transceiver that defines a call and handles the radio link protocols with the NS. In a large urban area a large number of BTS may be deployed
Each base transceiver station serves a single cell. it also includes following functions;
1. encoding, encrypting, multiplexing, modulating and feeding the RF signals to the antenna
2. Transcoding and rate adaptation
3. Time and frequency synchronizing
4. Voice trough full or half services
5. Decoding, decryption and equalizing receives signals
6. Random access detection
7. Timing advances
8.Uplink channels measurement (smith et al., 2002)POLLUTION
Pollution refers to excessive amounts of waste much of which contains harmful poisons, that are released into the environment –air, water and soil.
pollution is usually caused by people more specifically.it is caused by the waste produced by the cars we drive,the factories that make the things we buy, the power plants that produce the gas and electricity we use,and even the farms that grow the food we eat.
Pollution has been a problem ever since large numbers of people occupied a relatively small space.During the 1800s and 1900s,however,as the world became increasingly crowded and more factories were built, environmental ,pollution became a serious issue(Abbassi et al, .2011).
TYPES OF POLLUTION
Soil pollution (Kelishadi et al.,2009)
It is the introduction of harmful pollutants into a certain environment,that makes an environment unhealthy to live in. The widespread pollutants are usually chemicals, garbage, waste water. Environmental pollution is causing massive damage to the ecosystem that organisms depend upon the health of this environment to live in air and water pollution can cause death of myriad organisms in given ecosystems including Humans.
Environmental pollutants have various adverse health effects from early life some of the most important harmful effects are perinatal disorders,infant mortality,respiratory disorders,allergy,malignancies,cardiovascular disorders,increase in stress oxidative,endothelial dysfunctions, mental disorders,and various other harmful effects.(Hassan et al.,2011).