PREPARATION OF LOCAL SOAP WITH WOOD ASH DERIVED FROM THE CALYX AND THE COROLLA OF PALM FLOWER (EJEASIS GUINEENSIS)
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND
Soap is the earliest detergent know to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash (Robert, 1994). It is also an unsaturated ester since an ester can be split into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid by hydrolysis. Meaning that it does not contain all the solutes that can be dissolve at a particular temperature (Kirt Othmer, 1994). Also soap is a metallic salt of a fatty acid because if a metallic base is used in the hydrolysis instead of water, the metallic salt of the carboxylic acid is obtained, not the acid because carboxylic acid are weak acid which dissociates only slightly in solution (Hou, 1992).
1.2 Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively (Cook 1990). Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.C3H5 (COOR)3 + 3KOH 3KOOCR + C3H5 (OH) (where R – represent the hydrocarbon chain) also according to the equation above, soaps was made in huge keittes into which fat and oil and alkali were piped and heated until it boils vigorously. Saponification is the process used in making soap since ancient times, soaps have been made from vegetable and animal oil and fats looked in alkali (Kott, NaoH) (Steiner, 1990). Soap and detergent are both cleaning agents and both work in the same way, but soap cleanse with the natural occurring materials such as animal fat and wood ash.
1.3 TYPES OF SOAP In the world of soap manufacturing, there are basically three types of soap, under them they are classified according to their categories: (1) Foreign Soap These are soap that is medically investigated to cure a skin diseases. Examples:
(a) Medicated soap i. Antiseptic soap ii. Germicidic soap iii. Herbal soap
(b) Tablets Soap These are soap that is operated and purified, dyes and perfumed added, to make the skin mild. Example: i. Toilet Soap ii. Bar Soap (c) Local Soap These are meant for a purpose not medically investigated but meant for cleaning ability. a. Black soap b. Sida Soap.
But here we are basically on the one made from Local raw material, which is the black soap (Ncha Nkota).
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES I. AIM Preparation of soap using local raw materials. II. OBJECTIVES 1. To prepare local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (Ejeasis Guineensis), which serves as an alkali. 2. To know the trees in which caustic alkali can be obtained apart from palm tree (Eleasis Guineensis). 3. To improve the properly preparation of local soap and high quality local soap. 4. To educate some illiterate local soap producers on how to set a standard in the production of local soap and still retain its effectiveness and for a wider acceptability. 5. To create awareness on the need and importance of locally made soap analysis. 6. To make known to or enlighten especially the local soap producers (both urban and rural manufacturers) on the best and exact quantity or raw materials and methods to use to achieve better results in their products.
This research project could as well as form basis for further research work on local soaps analysis in this institution.
1.5 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS The problems why people are no longer interested in the local soap is because it causes irritation of the skin; Reason, because they are not medically investigated and are not dirtiness causes dust, grief and stiffs on fabrics in the heading process becaus3 of the inaccurate measurement of the alkali and inability to bring out the purest form of the alkali. Also some smokes and wood particles enter into the pot of soap on stirring because of inability to maintain a hygienic on cooking and on stirring.
1.6 HYPOTHESIS H1 : Raw Materials can be used in making local soaps Ho : Raw materials can not be used in making local soap.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE This soap includes “Builders” as alkaline compound, which improve the cleansing efficiencies, example, in washing of cloth, washing of plate and washing of kitchen utensils.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THESE STUDIES This research work is limited by the extraction of alkali to manufacture good quality local soap with the leaching process and filtration method and it’s cr6stallization.
TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS
Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.
"I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."
"researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."
"Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."
"Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."
"My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"
"WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"
"I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."
"My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"
"I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."
"I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."
Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.
Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.