EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF THE PHYSICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CASHEW NUT OIL
Cashew nut oil is basically extracted from the fruit of cashew by the cold pressed method. The cashew nuts have a shell which has a hard layer inside and an oily layer outside. The cashew nut is actively contained within this. The oil comes out of the outer ashy colored shell. This oil is basically considered as toxic for the human beings but still, it has various uses.
Four methods were used in caring out the chemical properties of cashew nut. The methods are Saponification value, Acid value, peroxide value, and Iodine value.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content
1.1 Nutrient value/Composition of Cashew Nut
1.1.1 Overall composition of cashew nut
1.1.2 Total Nutrient content of cashew nut
1.1.3 Protein Content of Cashew Nut
1.1.4 Carbohydrate content of Cashew Nut
1.1.5 Fatty Acid Content of Cashew Nut
1.1.6 Vitamin content of Cashew Nut
1.2 Uses of Cashew Nut
1.3 Potential of Cashew Cultivation
1.4 Cashew Nut Shell liquid composition and properties.
2.0 Physio Chemical Properties of Cashew Nut
2.1 Mineral Content of Cashew Nut
2.1.1 Mineral Composition of Cashew Nut
2.1.2 Analysis of Mineral in Cashew Nut
2.2 Analysis of Acid, Sponification and Iodine value in Cashew Nut.
2.3 Aim of the Project
3.1 Material and Apparatus
3.1.2 Apparatus and Equipment
3.2 Collection of Sample
3.3 Preparation of Sample
3.4 Preparation of Reagent
3.4.1 Preparation of Methanolic Pottassium Hydroxide
3.4.2 Preparation of 1% phenophtaein
3.4.3 Preparation of 0.1 sodium thiosulphate
3.4.4 Preparation of Starch Indicator
3.4.5 Preparation of 5% Potassium Iodide
3.4.6 Preparation of 0.1m of NAOH (Sodium Hydroxide)
3.4.7 Preparation of 0.5m Hcl (hydrochloric Acid)
3.5 Extraction of CNoil
3.6 Physicochemical Analysis
3.6.1 Physical Properties Determination
18.104.22.168 Specific Gravity
3.6.2 Chemical Properties Determination
22.214.171.124 Determination of Saponification Value
126.96.36.199 Determination of Iodine Value
188.8.131.52 Determination of Acid Value
184.108.40.206 Determination of Peroxide Value
4.0 Result and Discussion
The cashew nut (Anacadium Occidentale) produces nuts, the Kernels of which have increase considerably in economic importance over the past few decades. Indigenous to Brazil. The cashew was taken to West Africa, East and India by the Portuguese in the 15th and 6th centuries. It was noticed that the tree grew well on poor sandy soils along the costal belt and was used by the Portuguese in Africa as an anti soil, erosion measure the tree prospered and spread naturally, particularly in East Africa and India and the progeny of these wild cashew has formed the basis of the raw material for the cashew industry. Through the plant was primarily intended for checking soil erosion, it is now mainly grown for its commercially important kernel and shell oil. (Tiyadurai 1963).
Cashew nut is a high value edible nut. It yield two oils one of these found between the seed coat (or pericare) and the nut, is called the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSC). It is used in industry as a raw material for brake lining compounds, as a water proofing agent, a preservative and in the manufacturing of paints and plastics. Iy is toxic and corrosive to the skin. (Cashew applies are sometimes made locally in to fruit drinks, wines and pickles.
The fat of nut is completely naturally and unprocessed which is best for the body. It is especially rich in Linoleic acid (omega-3) and is least damaging to heart and arteries. Infact, it constitutes about 47% of the total weight of the nut. Nut often produce oil half their weight. It could be good news for people who feel week debilitated. Cashew has the right combination of fat and the ratio consumption. The relative abundance of monounsaturated fatty acids in cashew nut is conducive to the promotion of good health and that the relative abundance of fat is cashew nut in no way poses a nutritional risk (Achal 2005). The advantages of cashew kernel is that it has a rich, delightful taste and it meaty and acceptable as it.
Cashew is a highly nutritious and concentrated form of food, providing a substantial amount of energy. The cashew nut kernel has a pleasant taste and flavor and can be eaten raw, fried and sometimes salted or sweetened with sugar (manay et al, 1987). It also contributes as an important source of invisible fat in the diet, being widely used in a variety of ways there has been a growing demand for cashew. The nut contains an acid compound which is a powerful vesicant, which is abrasive to the skin. There has been a growing demand for cashew in many temperate countries where the demand is increasing (Russel, 1979).
1.1.1 OVERALL COMPOSITION
The kernel is considered to be of high nutritive quality and growing conditions or the variety of cashew may have an influence on kernel composition (Ohler, 1979). The overall composition of the kernel is protein 21%, fat 46% and carbohydrate 25%.
1.1.2 TOTAL NUTRIENT CONTENT
The total nutrient value of 100g of cashew nut is presented in table 1.
Moisture is 5.9
Total mineral = 2.4
Total fibre = 1.3
Energy = 785
Protein = 24
Carbohydrate = 41
Thiamin = 0.63
Niacin = 2.5
Vitamin K = 650 Total fate = 64
Saturated = 12.9
Unsaturated (linoleic) = 10.2
Ca = 53
P = 52.2
Fe = 5.3
Riboflarin = 0.19
Beta – Carotene = 60
Retinol Equivalent = 331u;10mcg
1.1.3 PROTEIN CONTENT
Wide differences in the protein content ranging from 13.13 to 25.03% have been reported from various region of India.
It has been suggested that protein content be considered as one of the most important factors in future breeding and selection programs on cashew nut. The Amino acid composition of kernel protein has been reported by various experts. (Tabel 2) Amino-Acid composition of cashew kernel protein.
Glutamic Acid = 28.0
Leucine = 11.93
Iso levcine = 3.86
Alanine = 3.18
Phenylalanire = 4.35
Tyrosine = 3.20
Glycine = 5.20
Histidine = 1.81
Lysine = 3.32 Methionine = 1.30
Cystine = 1.02
Threonine = 2.78
Valine = 4.53
Tryptophane = 1.37
Aspartic Acid = 10.78
Proline = 3.72
Serine = 5.76
1.1.4 CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT
Analysis of cashew nut kernels from different region of India have revealed that there are variation in the reducing sugar content from 1% to 3% and the non-reducing sugar from 2.4% to 8.7% starch content ranged from 4.6 % to 11.2% and the oil content also showed a wide variability from 34.5% to 46.8%.
1.1.5 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION
The fat and oil content of cashew nut contribute substantially to its energy content and consist mostly of glycerides of Oleic acid (73.8%) and linoleic acid (7.7%) (Ohler, 1979). Table 3 gives the composition of fats in cashew kernels.
Table 3: Fatty and composition of Cashew kernel (%)
Oleic Acid 73.3
Linoleic acid 7.67
Palmitic Acid 0.89
Steric Acid 11.24
Lignoseric Acid 0.15
Unsciponifiable matter 0.42
1.1.6 VITAMIN CONTENT
The vitamin content of cashew nut kernel shown in table 4 indicates that 0.5 to 1.4mg per 100g of thiamin and 0.58 mg per 100g of riboflavin, a good proportion of vitamin E and traces of other vitamin are present in cashew.
Table 4–vitamin content (mg per 100gm) of cash kernels
Vitamin D traces
It may be mentioned that vitamin E content of cashew nut could be a beneficial factor, in view of the wider use in the diet of the elderly and those who run the risk of cardiorasovar disease. Vitamin E is also a powerful anti-oxidant and its role in Lipid metabolism has been well established. (KuruP, 1989)
1.1.7 MINIRAL CONTENT
The mineral content of cashew kernel (Table 5) appear to be mineral as compared to the higher mineral content of the cashew apple, especially the high vitamin C content (240mg), most citrus species such as orange have only 45mg of vitamine C. however, the cashew apple is yet to be requirement in the tropical countries where crop is grown. The high price of cashew kernels wills certainly the planting program in various countries. Since the cashew nut market competes with other nut, there is both be increased production of all nuts (Russel, 1979).
Table 5: Mineral content of cashew kernel (%)
Ca = 0.04
P = 0.88
Na = 0.005
K = 0.57
mg = 0.28
fe = 0.0008 Cu = 0.002
Zn = 0.004
Mn = 0.02
1.2 USES OF CASHEW NUT OIL
The cashew Nut shell (CNS2), a byproduct of processing cashew, is mostly composed of anacardic acid (Alexandra 2000) (70%) cardol (18%) and cardanol (5%) (A.B, 2012). These acid have been used effectively against 100th abscesses due to their lethality to a wide range of gram –position bacteria many part of the plant are used by the patamona of Guyana medicinally. The bark is scraped and soaked overnight or boiled as an antidiarrheal; it also yields a gum used in varnish. Seeds are ground into powder used for antiveran for snake bites; the nut oil is used topically as an antifungal and for healing cracked heels.
Anacarde acid is also used in the chemical industry for the production of cardanol, which is used for resins, coating, and frictional material. (Alenxandre 2008) cashew nut is a popular snack and it is rich flavor means that it is often eaten roasted, on its own, lightly salted or tree nuts, containing starch to about 10% of their weight. This makes them more effective than other nuts in thickening water-based dishes such as soup, meat stews and some India milk based deserts. Many South East Asia and South Asian cuisines use cashew for this unusual characteristic, rather than other nuts. (Harold Mc Gee 2004).
The shell of the cashew is toxic, which is why the cashew is shelled before it is sold to consumers.
1.3 POTENTIAL OF CASHEW CULTIVATION
The cashew tree (Anacardium Occidentale) was brought to India by Portuguese in 1653 AD from eastern Brazil. Then is spread across almost all parts of the country and now it is among the top 3 commercial crops as per cashew statistic book (2001). Cashew tree is evergreen and relatively easy to cultivate. It grows up to 12 meters high and has a spread of 25 meters, most frequently found in coastal areas.
Table 1: Cashew nut production worldwide year 2000 – Jason. W Clay (2004)
Country Area hectares Cashew nut 103tons/year
India 837,000 537
Brazil 598,000 114
Nigeria 291,000 184
Indonesia 260,000 91
Guinea Bissau 210,000 73
Benin 175,000 26
Vietnam 151,000 27
Coted’ivore 125,000 78
Tanzania 90,000 121
World 2,742,000 1,600
Table 2: All India area, production and yield of cashew nut (directorate of cashew nut and cocoa development, Cochin, Kerala 2011 report).
Year Cashew Cultivated area 1000 hectares Production area 1000 hectares Cashew Production 1000 tons Cashew yield kg per hectare
2001-02 837,000 666 470 710
2002-03 598,000 675 550 760
2003-04 291,000 684 535 800
2004-05 260,000 700 544 810
2005-06 210,000 760 573 815
2006-07 175,000 765 620 820
2007-08 151,000 770 665 860
2008-09 125,000 835 695 773
1.4 CASHEW NUT SHELL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES
The cashew nut shell is about 0.3cm thick, hang a soft feathery outer skin and hard inner skin between these skins is the honey comb structure contain CNSL ln side the shell is the our kernel wrapped in at thin skin know as the testa CNS is a reddish brown viscous liquid, having (4) major components: Anacardic acid, cardonl, methy1 cardol which are naturally occurring unstrurated phenols (NSL is traditionally obtained as a byproduct during the process of removing the cashew kernel from the nut. The process used are mainly hot oil and roasting in which the cash out from the shell.
Natural (i.e cold, solvent extracted) (NSL is a liquid that contain approximately 70% anacardic acid, 18% cardol and 5% cardanol, with the remainder being made up of other phenols and less polar substance (m 9 to 5, J.E.X etal, 2009). As can be seen in figure 2, anacardic acid, cardanol and cardol consist of mixture of compound having various degrees of instauration in the allyside chain.
Chemical structure of Anacardic Acid, Cardanol and cardol..