AN INSIGHT INTO THE DRUG RESISTANCE PROFILE AND MECHANISM OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE
Among the aetiological agents of treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Neisseria Gonorrhea is considered to be most important, because of emerging antibiotic resistance strains that compromise the effectiveness of treatment of the disease. Gonococci infections are usually treated with single – dose therapy with an agent found to cure above 95 percent of each case, but unfortunately Neisseria gonorrhea has developed resistance to most of the antibiotic used against it, which can be categorized into pre-quinolone, quinolone and post – quinolone era.
Among the anti-biotic available so far, the third generation “cephalosporin has also be safely recommended as first line therapy for gonorrhea globally;
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Characteristic of Neisseria Gonorrhea
Mechanism of Drug Resistance
Despite the recent advances in diagnosis, surveillance and treatment, sexual transmitted disease (STDs) remain one of the leading diseases throughout the world. Increased promiscuity and onset of sexual activity at an early age are two important contributing factors to the spread of sexual transmitted disease. Neisseria gonorrheae (also known as the gonococcus) colonizes primarily in the human genital urinary tract, giving rise to the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. It cause both symptomatic and asymptomatic genital and extra genital tract infections. Disease caused by this organism is a significant public health problem despite continual advances in treatment (Tanaka and Reyn et al, 2004).
World wide, there is an estimated 62million new cases a year, with an average of 22miilion cases at any given time (WHO, 1992). N. gonorrhea inhabits mainly mucosal surface of the urethra in males and the cervix in females. As the signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or obscure complication such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, entopic pregnant woman may lead to crucial perforation and blindness in the newborn. Gonococci infection have also been documented to facilitate acquisition and transmission of HIV and HPV infection (Hunter et al. 1990). Asymptomatic infections by N. gonorrhoeae largely contribute to the persistence and transmission of disease in a community. (Hunter et, al.1990).
Therefore, to eliminate N. gonorrhea infection and in turn to control HIV and HPV infection it is important not only to screen high – risk population but also to treat them immediately with most effective drugs. Control of gonococci infection has relied on effective single – dose antibiotic therapy given at the initial clinical visit, prior to any knowledge of the organism’s susceptibility pattern. In the recent past, there has been an alarming increase in the number of isolate of N. gonorrhea resistance to commonly used drugs. (Chaudhry et al, 2002). Surveillance is therefore, necessary to understand on going resistance trends and to ensure the success of any therapy.
The irrational and injudicious use of antibacterial agents especially in the developing countries is encouraging this trend and the situation is expected to worsen unless appropriate steps are initiated. This resistance of the gonococcus to antibiotics has been the cause of much concern in recent years and has been the subject of extensive investigation. The present review summarizes and trends to drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, mechanism of drug resistance and discusses the treatment regime. In addition, the need to look for new and alternative antibacterial agent is also emphasized..