Title page

Table of contents 


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Rust in History

1.2 Iron and its Properties

1.3 Definition of Rusting and Rust


2.0 The Chemistry of Rusting

2.1 Factors that speed up Rusting

2.2 Protection from Rusting


3.0 Methods of removing Rust on iron

3.1 Economic importance of Rusting of iron

3.2 Conclusion

3.3 References 


1.0 Introduction

Rusting is the corrosion of iron which is the most widely used structural metal. Most of it is used in making steel. The wide range of products made from steel includes all types vehicles, machinery pipeline, bridges and reinforcing rods and girders for construction  purposes.

Rusting  is due to electrochemical reaction, it require the presence of both air i.e oxygen and water. Like the electrochemical cell, electrons given up from anode of an iron atom flow (through metal ) to cathode and reduces the oxygen being  dissolved  in the water layer to  give OH-  

Therefore, rusting causes enormous econom ic problem and is reason why extensive measures of rusting/corrosion protection have to be developed


To the great majority of people, corrosion means rust, an almost universal object of hatred. `Rust' is, of course, the name which has more recently been specifically reserved for the corrosion of iron, while `corrosion' is the destructive phenomenon which affects almost all metals.     Although iron was not the first metal used by man, it has certainly been the most used, and must have been one of the first with which serious corrosion problems were obtained. It is not, therefore, surprising that the terms corrosion and rust are almost synonymous. 

The great Roman philosopher, Pliny, AD 23-79, wrote at length about ferrum corrumpitur, or spoiled iron, for by his time the Roman Empire had been established as the world's foremost civilization, a distinction due partly to the extensive use of iron for weaponry and other artifacts. 

The Romans must have been vexed by the susceptibility of iron to rust, for, in true scientific fashion, Pliny asked himself the question: why should iron corrode more easily than other metals? Lacking the ability to investigate the problem experimentally, he arrived at the metaphysical solution that it is because iron is both the best and the worst of man's servants. 

Although very useful domestically, it is also the metal of war, slaughter and brigandage. 

In other words, Pliny considered the rusting of iron to be a punishment of the gods, as the metal allows itself to be used for swords an other war purposes.

1.2 Iron : Is the second most abundant metal found in earth’s crust after aluminum and it is the most common metal that is found around us, therefore, its corrosion is of special significance. 

Iron is an alloy of steel i.e a mixture of iron and carbon and it

is the most widely used metal, such as in vehicles motorcycles, bicycles, machineries, pipelines, bridges and girders for

construction purposes etc.

Iron being a special element corrodes; its corrosion is know as

“rusting” and is of special significance.


Iron has chemical and physical properties which some of it react with oxygen and water to produce rust and which enable it to be useful for many purposes. 


⦁ It is a silvery solid 

⦁ It is malleable

⦁ It is ductile 

⦁ Has a meeting point of 15300c

⦁ It conducts electricity e.t.c


⦁ Reaction with air: When iron is exposed to moist air, it

gradually rust, due to  the formation of hydrated iron (III) Oxide (Fe203. XH20)

4FE(S) +302(g)+2xH20                2Fe203.xH2O(Rust)

⦁ Reaction with steam : When steam is passed over red-hot

iron fillings, iron (ii) diiron (iii) oxide and hydrogen are produced 

3Fe(s) ­+ 4H20(G)  = Fe3304(s) + 4h2(g)

⦁ Reaction with non-metals:- When heated, iron readily

combines with chlorine to give iron (iii) chloride. 

2Fe(s) + 3cl2(g)            2Fecl3 (s) 

1.3 Rusting: Is the corrosion of iron. As iron is the most widely

used metal in the world , rusting is the most common type of corrosion. 

Iron rusts by combining with oxygen in the presence of water

to from brown hydrated iron (iii) oxide (commonly known  as rust), Fe2 03.XH20

RUST:  Is a general term used for describing iron oxides.

The terms is applied to red oxides, formed by the reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing