The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and affected most of the world in early 2020. To inform effective public health measures we conducted a research on the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Uyo local government area. This paper attempts to examine the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Uyo local government area. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents of Uyo metropolis for analysis. Convenient sampling technique was used in selecting 200 respondents from the population. Descriptive statistics and correlation models have been used to analyze the data; that there is a significant relationship between the knowledge of covid-19 and the acceptance of its vaccine. It is observed that there is a high prevalence of low acceptance of vaccines in Uyo metropolis.

Part of the findings reveal that religious/cultural factors; higher risk for infection; and conspiracy theory about the vaccine are the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State. Amongst all the recommendations raised, the study first suggested that there is need for the government to work with trusted bodies to reduce misinformation and allay the people’s fears by informing and involving religious and community leaders in Covid-19 vaccine.

Table Of Content




1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypothesis 

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.6 Scope of the Study

1.7 Limitation of the Study

1.8 Definition of Terms




2.1 The Evolution of Covid-19 in Nigeria

2.2 The Spread and Containment of Covid-19 in Nigeria

2.3 Distribution of Covid-19 Vaccines in Nigeria

2.4 Nigeria’s National Vaccination Plan on Covid-19

2.5 Challenges of the Cold-Chain System of Covid-19 in Nigeria

Poor Infrastructure

2.6 Solutions on Storage and Distribution of Covid-19 Vaccines























5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation







1.1 Background to the Study

Vaccines are an important tool for halting the spread of the pandemic such as COVID-19, influenza, etc. In excess of 100 competitors were in the race to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine (Pogue et al 2020). Though the COVID-19 vaccine was launched on a fast track, it took entry in the market just nine months after the virus was identified (Bhartiya et al, 2021). Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and are being applied in various parts of the world. To develop a COVID-19 vaccine to stop the disease’s spread and devastating consequences by covering the maximum variant of the virus, the racing between candidates is still on (Felter, 2021 and Chan et al., 2015) and as the pandemic progresses, more successful latest vaccines are likely to be produced. Nevertheless, it is crucial to evaluate the people acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations for successfully delivering vaccines (Reiter et al, 2020) as some scholars perceived that the large populace has moderately high vaccine indecision on current vaccinations and also, the distribution of vaccination is not adequate (van Doremalen et al 2020; Harapan et al. 2019).

While the focus is more on the development of a COVD-19 vaccine, less attention has been paid to the extent to which a vaccine will be accepted in Africa. The introduction of another health intervention is not really trailed by acknowledgment and adoption by communities. There are several, demographic, individual, socio-political, financial, and cultural dimensions that interplay to influence the adoption and implementation of new health interventions. Few studies conducted on acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine have brought about varied outcomes with degrees as low as 37% and as high as 86% (Neumann-Bohme, S., 2020).

Nigeria is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious country. Knowledges with the GAVI-sustained routine immunization program reveals vaccination coverage rates varies throughout the nation with higher coverage rates in the southern states compared to the north, and within states, higher coverage rates in urban compared to rural areas. Disparities in rates are also observed when comparison is made across caretaker literacy levels, family wealth index and caretaker age (NBS, 2018). The polio vaccination refusal saga in 3 states in northern part of Nigeria between 2003 and 2004 is an ugly reminder of how public distrust of government aims and the international community, political as well as religious discordances and poor community engagement can disrupt a vaccination program intended for the good of the people with grave consequences (Jegede, A. S. 2007). It stresses the need for a clear understanding of the context-specific factors that may influence a COVID-19 vaccination program in Nigeria, and the timely implementation of strategies to achieve high coverage rates when a vaccine eventually becomes available in the country.

However, there is widespread opposition to take vaccinations among Nigeria’s mass people. A portion of Nigerian citizens is hesitant to take vaccines and according due to the fear of unknown side effect. However, it is necessary to get vaccinated so that they can be freed from being covid-19 pandemic. Be that as it may, the inquiry is if they can take the vaccine or not? What are their views on the vaccine program? What are the factors that impact their choices? To answer these questions, this study aims to investigate knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in almost all areas of life all over the world. Education, especially medical education, is one of the areas negatively affected by the pandemic. Medical schools were also suspended during the Covid-19 pandemic, and as such, many students were at home. This has disrupted the medical education process. There have been problems in bedside and practical training with online medical education. Although time is needed to accurately predict the effects of the pandemic on education, it is predicted that it may pose important problems for the learning experience and professional development of medical students (Sani I, et al; 2020).

It is known that the most beneficial method for the whole world to get rid of the negative effects of the pandemic is vaccination against COVID-19. It is possible with vaccination on the return of medical education and medical faculty students to normal life (Bish A and Michie S. 2010). Although vaccination seems to be the way out of the pandemic, the willingness of individuals to be vaccinated is also important in combating the pandemic. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it has reported that the acceptability of influenza vaccination among adults in the USA was between 50-64%. Nevertheless, there is no enough literature about the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the factors influencing it. Such information which acceptance rate and affecting factors are may be useful for improving COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (Gidengil, et al; 2012 and Horney JA, et al 2010). This study was aimed to determine COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and which factors are related vaccination willingness.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives include:

i) To understand the spread and containment of Covid-19 in Nigeria

ii) To examine the distribution of Covid-19 vaccines in Nigeria

iii) To access the attitudes and acceptance of Nigerians toward Covid-19 vaccine

iv) To investigate the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following statements were considered to be the research questions for this study:

i) How did Covid-19 spread and contain in Nigeria?

ii) How were the Covid-19 vaccines distributed in Nigeria?

iii) What are the attitudes and acceptance of Nigerians toward Covid-19 vaccine?

iv) What are the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State?

1.7 Research Hypothesis 

H0: There is no significant relationship between the knowledge of covid-19 and the acceptance of its vaccine.

1.8 Significance of the Study

The study on the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo LGA will be of immense benefit to all the Nigeria citizens, the health sector, and the federal government of Nigeria. The study will explore the prevalence of corona virus disease (COVID-19), the causes, and the effect of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) on the present state of Nigeria. The study will educate the masses on the mode of transmission of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) and the preventive measures to be adopted and why it is important to take the vaccines to prevent the further spread of this pandemic virus. The study will educate the Nigeria government on the policy implementation to curb the prevalence of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) in this period. The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on the effect of corona virus disease (COVID-19) on the Nigeria economy.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study will cover on the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State, Nigeria. A total one hundred respondents shall be selected for this study.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 Definition of Terms

The following terms were used in the course of carrying out this study:

Acceptance: a favorable attitude toward an idea, situation, person, or group.

Attitude: manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): it is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.

Knowledge: is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, skills, or objects.

Pandemic: A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. It differs from an outbreak or epidemic because it: affects a wider geographical area, often worldwide; infects a greater number of people than an epidemic.


Pogue, K., Jensen, J. L., Stancil, C. K., Ferguson, D. G., Hughes, S. J., Mello, E. J., ... & Poole, B. D. (2020). Influences on attitudes regarding potential COVID-19 vaccination in the United States. Vaccines, 8(4), 582.

Reiter, P. L., Pennell, M. L., & Katz, M. L. (2020). Acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine among adults in the United States: How many people would get vaccinated?. Vaccine, 38(42), 6500-6507

Bhartiya, S., Kumar, N., Singh, T., Murugan, S., Rajavel, S., and Wadhwani, M. (2021). Knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 vaccination acceptance in West India. Int. J. Commun. Med. Public Health 8:1170. doi: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20210481

Felter, C. (2021). What to Know About the Global COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout So Far. Council on Foreign Relations.

Van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D. H., Holbrook, M. G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B. N., & Munster, V. J. (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARSCoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England journal of medicine, 382(16), 1564-1567.

Neumann-Böhme, S., Varghese, N. E., Sabat, I., Barros, P. P., Brouwer, W., van Exel, J., et al. (2020). Once we have it, will we use it? a European survey on willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Eur. J. Health Econ. 21, 977–982. doi: 10.1007/s10198-020-01208-6

Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS, 2018).

Jegede AS (2005) The cultural and political dynamics of technology delivery: The case of infant immunisation in south western Nigeria. West African Social Science and Immunisation Network. Available: http//,uk/IDS/KNOTS/PDFs/VaccJegedeNigeria.pdf#search=%22Regional%20differential%20and%20implementation%20of%20the%20National%20Policy%20on%20population%3A%20Pilot%20study%20of%20Borno%20and%20Oyo%20states%20of%20Nigeria%22. Accessed 15 February 2007.

Sani G, Tondo L, Koukopoulos A et al. Suicide in a large population of

former psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2011; 65:


Sani G, Tondo L, Koukopoulos A et al. Suicide in a large population offormer psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2011; 65:286–295

Bish, A.; Michie, S. Demographic and attitudinal determinants of protective behaviours during a pandemic:A review. Br. J. Health Psychol. 2010,15 Pt 4, 797–824.

Gidengil CA, Parker AM, Zikmund-Fisher BJ. Trends in Risk Perceptions and Vaccination Intentions: A Longitudinal Study of the First Year of the H1N1 Pandemic. Am J Public Health [Internet]. 2012 Feb 16;102(4):672–9. Available from: https//doi,org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300407

Horney JA, Moore Z, Davis M, MacDonald PDM. Intent to Receive Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine, Compliance with Social Distancing and Sources of Information in NC, 2009. Timmer A, editor. PLoS One [Internet]. 2010 Jun 18;5(6):e11226. Available from: https//dx.plos,org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011226



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing